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Chemical Compound Review

ParaMagenta     4-[(4-aminophenyl)-(4-imino- 1-cyclohexa-2...

Synonyms: Parasaniline, Pararosaniline, Para Magenta, Basic fuchsin, SureCN825929, ...
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Disease relevance of Pararosaniline

  • The hexazonium pararosaniline method was employed to describe the distribution of acid phosphatase activity, chronologically, within neurons and their investing satellite cells of the inferior vagal ganglion of the cat after vagotomy [1].
  • Bacillary smears from 200 long-treated patients with tuberculoid, borderline and lepromatous leprosy were stained with periodic acid-carbol pararosaniline [2].

High impact information on Pararosaniline


Biological context of Pararosaniline


Anatomical context of Pararosaniline


Associations of Pararosaniline with other chemical compounds

  • The MNA substrates are used for histochemical and cytochemical purposes, and they yield a coloured final reaction product when azo-coupled with a diazonium salt, an osmiophilic product for electron microscopy when coupled with hexazotized Pararosaniline, or a fluorescent final reaction product when coupled with 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde [16].
  • Mechanisms that call for unmodified TAM(+) structure (radical-mediated redox changes, DNA intercalation) may be more relevant to the in vivo impact of dyes such as PR(+) and CV(+) that have a lower tendency to form adducts [17].
  • A method is presented in which esterase positive sites are revealed by incubation with hexazotized pararosaniline and indoxyl acetate [18].
  • Fluorescent microspectrophotometry using dichroic mirror vertical epi-illumination of tissue sections stained with the PAS reaction (periodic acid and pararosaniline Schiff reagent) provides a measure of the relative concentration of 1:2 glycols within and between tissue sections [19].
  • Crystallization without dye precipitation took place if the reagent, prepared with pararosaniline base or chloride in a saturated SO2 solution, was stored for a sufficient time at room temperature in partly filled flasks [20].

Gene context of Pararosaniline

  • Acceleration of fluorescence fading was observed in smear specimens treated with RNase, trypsin, or hypotonic solution before pararosaniline Feulgen nuclear staining [21].
  • The method was tested on a variety of both sulfite-treated and untreated food products and the results compared favorably with those obtained by the Monier-Williams, colorimetric (pararosaniline), and enzymatic (sulfite oxidase) methods [22].
  • The intracellular Hb in an erythroid cell was converted to fluorescent porphyrin after removing the Giemsa staning by irradiation with violet light in the presence of SH-donor (mercaptoethylamine hydrochloride, MEA) and its nuclear DNA was subsequently stained with pararosaniline Feulgen staining [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pararosaniline

  • Parameters measured were: sulphur dioxide using pararosaniline method, nitrogen dioxide using saltzman method, particulate matter and particulate lead using filtration method and atomic absorption spectrometric method, respectively [24].
  • By periodic acid oxidation followed by Schiff pararosaniline (SO2) staining, however, a specific fluorescent signal can be obtained, strong enough to allow measurement by flow cytometry [25].
  • Heretofore the amount of color reaction as measured by densitometry at the pararosaniline absorption peak was claimed to be an unreliable indicator of the amount of reactive glycol present in tissue [19].
  • A method was developed to prepare plant structures for confocal laser scanning microscopy by combining Feulgen staining with pararosaniline and embedding in LR White(TM) [26].
  • Other investigators have found that immersion for 2 min in an acidic (pH 3.5) 0.0015 M hexazonium pararosaniline solution can protect cryostat sections of unfixed animal tissues from the deleterious effects of aqueous reagents such as buffered solutions used in immunohistochemistry, while preserving specific affinities for antibodies [14].


  1. Chronological changes in acid phosphatase activity within neurons and perineuronal satellite cells of the inferior vagal ganglion of the cat induced by vagotomy. Glover, R.A. J. Anat. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Two methods of demonstrating leprosy bacilli in smears. Harada, K., Kasai, T. Int. J. Lepr. Other Mycobact. Dis. (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Pararosaniline fixation for detection of co-stimulatory molecules, cytokines, and specific antibody. Schrijver, I.A., Melief, M.J., van Meurs, M., Companjen, A.R., Laman, J.D. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Cytochemical localization and biochemical evaluation of a lysosomal serine protease in lung: dipeptidyl peptidase II in the normal rat. Randell, S.H., Sannes, P.L. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Rapid method for identification of macrophages in suspension by acid alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase activity. Ennist, D.L., Jones, K.H. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. The influence of fixation and composition of incubating medium on alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase staining of T-lymphocytes and monocytes in human peripheral blood. Ward, P. J. Immunol. Methods (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. A comparative study of the chronic effects of magenta, paramagenta, and phenyl-beta-naphthylamine in Syrian golden hamsters. Green, U., Holste, J., Spikermann, A.R. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  8. DNA content and structure of (double) minutes of a methotrexate-resistant cell line. Jongsma, A.P., Duijndam, W.A., Borst, P. Histochemistry (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. A rapid air titration method for determining SO2 concentration in inhalation chambers. Snyder, E.A., Palmes, E.D. American Industrial Hygiene Association journal. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Presence of alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase enzymes in dental and oral epithelium of guinea pig embryos. Juhl, M., Vilmann, H. Scandinavian journal of dental research. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Ultrastructural cytochemistry of non-specific esterase in murine peritoneal macrophages. Rademakers, L.H., Van Blokland, W.T., De Frankrijker, J.F., De Weger, R.A., Compier-Spies, P.I. Histochem. J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Improved fixation of frozen lympho-haemopoietic tissue sections with hexazotized pararosaniline. De Jong, J.P., Voerman, J.S., Leenen, P.J., Van der Sluijs-Gelling, A.J., Ploemacher, R.E. Histochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. In situ assessment of beta-hexosaminidase activity. Lacorazza, H.D., Jendoubi, M. BioTechniques (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Hexazonium pararosaniline as a fixative for animal tissues. Kiernan, J.A. Biotechnic & histochemistry : official publication of the Biological Stain Commission. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Aldehyde pararosaniline staining of acinar cells in the human sublingual and submandibular glands. Ito, N., Nishi, K., Ishitani, A., Nakajima, M., Okamura, Y., Matsuda, Y., Hirota, T. Nippon Hoigaku Zasshi (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. The evolution of proteinase substrates with special reference to dipeptidylpeptidase IV. Smith, R.E., Reynolds, C.J., Elder, E.A. Histochem. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Adduct-forming tendencies of cationic triarylmethane dyes with proteins: metabolic and toxicological implications. Tacal, O., Ozer, I. J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. A method demonstrating motor endplates for light and electron microscopy. Strum, J.M., Hall-Craggs, E.C. J. Neurosci. Methods (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. A microfluorescent PAS method for the quantitative demonstration of cytoplasmic 1,2-glycols. Changaris, D.G., Combs, J., Severs, W.B. Histochemistry (1977) [Pubmed]
  20. A simple procedure for crystallization of the Schiff reagent. Galassi, L. Biotechnic & histochemistry : official publication of the Biological Stain Commission. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Fluorescence fading and stabilization in cytofluorometry. Fukuda, M., Tsuchihashi, Y., Takamatsu, T., Nakanishi, K., Fujita, S. Histochemistry (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Determination of sulfite in food by flow injection analysis. Sullivan, J.J., Hollingworth, T.A., Wekell, M.M., Newton, R.T., Larose, J.E. Journal - Association of Official Analytical Chemists. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Cytofluorometric analysis of cell proliferation and differentiation of the human erythroblasts. Fukuda, M., Maruo, N., Isemura, T., Böhm, N., Fujita, S. Histochemistry (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. Roadside concentration of gaseous and particulate matter pollutants and risk assessment in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Jackson, M.M. Environmental monitoring and assessment. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Flow cytometric determination of carbohydrates in human erythrocytes. Duijndam, W.A., van Duijn, P. Histochemistry (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Feulgen staining of intact plant tissues for confocal microscopy. Braselton, J.P., Wilkinson, M.J., Clulow, S.A. Biotechnic & histochemistry : official publication of the Biological Stain Commission. (1996) [Pubmed]
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