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Chemical Compound Review

B-Factor     [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6- aminopurin-9-yl)-4...

Synonyms: SureCN2239470, AC1L56Y2, 52278-63-4, 3'-(1-Butylphosphoryl)adenosine, 3'-Adenylic acid, monobutyl ester
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Disease relevance of B-Factor

  • This study applies quality-filtering techniques (using resolution, crystallographic B factor, and all-atom steric clashes) to the backbone torsion angle distributions from an 8,636-residue RNA database [1].
  • In patients with hemophilia B, factor VIIa levels were initially reduced to 0.5 +/- 0.1 ng/mL and gradually increased to normal after infusing 100 U/kg of body weight (BW) of factor IX [2].
  • Glioma cell lines express proteins of the complement alternative pathway, namely C3, factor B, factor H, and factor I. Secretion of these proteins was shown by a sensitive and specific ELISA [3].
  • These data allow us to postulate that signaling events, initiated by DNA oxidative damages, are transmitted into the cytoplasm where the inactive NF-kappa B factor is resident and allow the translocation of p50/p65 subunits of NF-kappa B to the nucleus leading to HIV-1 gene expression [4].
  • A 500 ps molecular dynamics simulation of Escherichia coli RNase H1 in the presence of explicit water molecules has been carried out to aid in the interpretation of NMR N-H backbone model free parameters and X-ray B-factor values of the free enzyme [5].

High impact information on B-Factor

  • The previously described B factor (an RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the TATA box), isolated from nonshocked cells, is significantly reduced in both binding and transcriptional activity in heat-shocked cells [6].
  • The potential role of the HSTF and the B factor in the activation of heat-shock gene transcription is discussed [6].
  • Immune precipitates were solubilized by the alternative pathway of complement assembled from isolated proteins, i.e., C3, factor B, factor D, properdin, C3b inactivator (C3bINA), and beta 1H [7].
  • Furthermore, complex formation between the TC-IIA protein and the TC-II enhanson was efficiently competed by the kappa B motif from the kappa chain enhancer, indicating that TC-IIA is the NF-kappa B factor or a closely related protein [8].
  • The physical association of protein kinase C theta with a lipid raft-associated inhibitor of kappa B factor kinase (IKK) complex plays a role in the activation of the NF-kappa B cascade by TCR and CD28 [9].

Biological context of B-Factor


Anatomical context of B-Factor


Associations of B-Factor with other chemical compounds

  • Therefore, in comparison to native FdI, the C24A mutant is isomorphous but exhibits large differences in B factor, especially at the [4Fe-4S] cluster [19].
  • Mapping approaches employing blocking antibodies and synthetic peptides have implicated the 727-767 segment at the NH2 terminus of C3b alpha'-chain as contributing to the interactions with factor B, factor H, and CR1 [20].
  • The procedure distinguished between defects of the classical activation pathway (C1, C4, C2), the alternative activation pathway (C3, factor B, factor D, properdin) and the terminal components (C5-C9) [21].
  • Caprylic acid binds to the fatty acid binding site of albumin, preventing it from binding to the resin which thus retains a high capacity for binding factor B. Factor B together with the homologous protein beta 2I are eluted from the column by a linear gradient of KCl [22].
  • After enzymatic C3b coupling or standard amine C3b coupling, we analyzed and compared the binding of four C3b ligands to the surface: factor B, factor H, C5 and the soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1, CD35) [23].

Gene context of B-Factor

  • The expression of the human gelatinase B gene varied in different cells in the presence of TNF.NF-kappa B factor may play an important role in regulating the gene expression [24].
  • Although the overall backbone structures of all mutant samples were nearly the same as that of wild-type RNase A, except for the C-terminal region of F120G with a high B-factor, two local conformational changes were observed at His119 in the mutants [25].
  • Moreover, IE1 gene-mediated enhancement of luciferase activity was abolished by the introduction of mutations into the AP-1 or NF-kappa B factor binding elements in the regulatory region of the IL-8 promoter [26].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The NF-kappa B factor was upregulated and proinflammatory cytokines were activated in patients with UPJ obstruction who failed endopyelotomy [27].
  • Phenotype distribution of the third component of complement (C3) and of the properdin B factor (BF) in children with mumps meningitis [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of B-Factor


  1. RNA backbone is rotameric. Murray, L.J., Arendall, W.B., Richardson, D.C., Richardson, J.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Determinants of plasma factor VIIa levels in humans. Eichinger, S., Mannucci, P.M., Tradati, F., Arbini, A.A., Rosenberg, R.D., Bauer, K.A. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of complement components of the alternative pathway by glioma cell lines. Gasque, P., Julen, N., Ischenko, A.M., Picot, C., Mauger, C., Chauzy, C., Ripoche, J., Fontaine, M. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Transcription factor NF-kappa B is activated by photosensitization generating oxidative DNA damages. Legrand-Poels, S., Bours, V., Piret, B., Pflaum, M., Epe, B., Rentier, B., Piette, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular dynamics simulation of E. coli ribonuclease H1 in solution: correlation with NMR and X-ray data and insights into biological function. Philippopoulos, M., Lim, C. J. Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. A Drosophila RNA polymerase II transcription factor binds to the regulatory site of an hsp 70 gene. Parker, C.S., Topol, J. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Solubilization of immune precipitates by six isolated alternative pathway proteins. Fujita, T., Takata, Y., Tamura, N. J. Exp. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. The SV40 TC-II(kappa B) enhanson binds ubiquitous and cell type specifically inducible nuclear proteins from lymphoid and non-lymphoid cell lines. Macchi, M., Bornert, J.M., Davidson, I., Kanno, M., Rosales, R., Vigneron, M., Xiao, J.H., Fromental, C., Chambon, P. EMBO J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. The physical association of protein kinase C theta with a lipid raft-associated inhibitor of kappa B factor kinase (IKK) complex plays a role in the activation of the NF-kappa B cascade by TCR and CD28. Khoshnan, A., Bae, D., Tindell, C.A., Nel, A.E. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. ProMate: a structure based prediction program to identify the location of protein-protein binding sites. Neuvirth, H., Raz, R., Schreiber, G. J. Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Buccal mucosa bleeding time is prolonged in canine models of primary hemostatic disorders. Brooks, M., Catalfamo, J. Thromb. Haemost. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Activation and binding of opsonic fragments of C3 on encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans by using an alternative complement pathway reconstituted from six isolated proteins. Kozel, T.R., Wilson, M.A., Pfrommer, G.S., Schlageter, A.M. Infect. Immun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. The importance of genetic and nutritional factors in responses to vitamin D and its analogs in osteoporotic patients. Nakamura, T. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Extrachromosomal factors affecting mating reactions in Schizophyllum commune. Parag, Y. Heredity (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. The peri-kappa B site mediates human immunodeficiency virus type 2 enhancer activation in monocytes but not in T cells. Clark, N.M., Hannibal, M.C., Markovitz, D.M. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of the complement alternative pathway by human myoblasts in vitro: biosynthesis of C3, factor B, factor H and factor I. Legoedec, J., Gasque, P., Jeanne, J.F., Fontaine, M. Eur. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. The C3/C5 convertase of the alternative pathway of complement: stabilization and restriction of control by lanthanide ions. Fishelson, Z., Müller-Eberhard, H.J. Mol. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of the components and regulatory proteins of the alternative complement pathway and the membrane attack complex in normal and diseased synovium. Guc, D., Gulati, P., Lemercier, C., Lappin, D., Birnie, G.D., Whaley, K. Rheumatol. Int. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Crystallographic analysis of two site-directed mutants of Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin. Soman, J., Iismaa, S., Stout, C.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Identification of residues within the 727-767 segment of human complement component C3 important for its interaction with factor H and with complement receptor 1 (CR1, CD35). Oran, A.E., Isenman, D.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. New procedure for the detection of complement deficiency by ELISA. Analysis of activation pathways and circumvention of rheumatoid factor influence. Fredrikson, G.N., Truedsson, L., Sjöholm, A.G. J. Immunol. Methods (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Dye-ligand affinity purification of human complement factor B and beta 2 glycoprotein I. Williams, S.C., Sim, R.B. J. Immunol. Methods (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Complement C3b interactions studied with surface plasmon resonance technique. Jokiranta, T.S., Westin, J., Nilsson, U.R., Nilsson, B., Hellwage, J., Löfås, S., Gordon, D.L., Ekdahl, K.N., Meri, S. Int. Immunopharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Molecular mechanism of transcriptional activation of human gelatinase B by proximal promoter. He, C. Cancer Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Conformational strictness required for maximum activity and stability of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A as revealed by crystallographic study of three Phe120 mutants at 1.4 A resolution. Chatani, E., Hayashi, R., Moriyama, H., Ueki, T. Protein Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. The immediate early gene 1 product of human cytomegalovirus is sufficient for up-regulation of interleukin-8 gene expression. Murayama, T., Mukaida, N., Sadanari, H., Yamaguchi, N., Khabar, K.S., Tanaka, J., Matsushima, K., Mori, S., Eizuru, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Potential role for the nuclear transcription factor NF-kappa B in the pathogenesis of ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Ruiz-Deya, G., Sikka, S.C., Thomas, R., Abdel-Mageed, A.B. J. Endourol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Phenotype distribution of the third component of complement (C3) and of the properdin B factor (BF) in children with mumps meningitis. Hałasa, J., Kacprzak-Bergman, I., Mańczak, M., Schlesinger, D. Eur. J. Immunogenet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Application of cDNA microarrays to generate a molecular taxonomy capable of distinguishing between colon cancer and normal colon. Zou, T.T., Selaru, F.M., Xu, Y., Shustova, V., Yin, J., Mori, Y., Shibata, D., Sato, F., Wang, S., Olaru, A., Deacu, E., Liu, T.C., Abraham, J.M., Meltzer, S.J. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Monitoring the stability of crosslinked protein crystals biotemplates: a feasibility study. Cohen-Hadar, N., Wine, Y., Nachliel, E., Huppert, D., Gutman, M., Frolow, F., Freeman, A. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. An outbreak of non-A, non-B hepatitis associated with the infusion of a commercial factor IX complex during cardiovascular surgery. Gerber, A.R., Englender, S.J., Selvey, D., Carlson, J.F., Matthews, D.L., Webster, H.M., Caldwell, G.G. Vox Sang. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Evidence for priming and activation of neutrophils early after coronary angioplasty. Steg, P.G., Pasquier, C., Huu, T.P., Chollet-Martin, S., Juliard, J.M., Himbert, D., Pocidalo, M.A., Gourgon, R., Hakim, J. The European journal of medicine. (1993) [Pubmed]
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