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MeSH Review

Sural Nerve

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Disease relevance of Sural Nerve

  • In a recent paper, we showed that the number of endoneurial microvessels per square millimeter and the average luminal area and size distribution of these microvessels are not significantly different in sural nerves of patients with diabetes mellitus as compared to control subjects [1].
  • Biopsy specimens of sural nerve from 10 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), of whom only 1 was severely disabled, were assessed by morphometric techniques and compared to nerves from age-matched controls [2].
  • In this study, sural nerve segments from individuals with PMP22 duplications or deletions, causing the reciprocal disorder hereditary neuropathy with pressure palsies (HNPP), were grafted into the cut ends of the sciatic nerve of nude mice [3].
  • To explore whether microangiopathy is associated with disturbed glucose tolerance and peripheral neuropathy, we assessed endoneurial capillary morphology in sural nerve biopsies from men with diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) [4].
  • Effects of long-term aldose reductase inhibition on development of experimental diabetic neuropathy. Ultrastructural and morphometric studies of sural nerve in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats [5].

Psychiatry related information on Sural Nerve


High impact information on Sural Nerve


Chemical compound and disease context of Sural Nerve


Biological context of Sural Nerve


Anatomical context of Sural Nerve


Associations of Sural Nerve with chemical compounds


Gene context of Sural Nerve

  • We report here a technique for extraction of nuclei from paraffin-embedded and cryofixed sural nerve biopsies for precise molecular diagnosis, employing interphase-two-color FISH in clinically diagnosed CMT1 or HNPP patients [32].
  • To determine whether these different genetic entities display different morphological phenotypes we compared sural nerve biopsies of CMT1A patients due to PMP22 duplication with biopsies of CMTX1 patients with proven Connexin32 mutations [33].
  • SC cultures from sural nerve biopsies of 8 subjects with axonal neuropathies, 8 with demyelinating neuropathies and 3 normal controls were included in this study and processed with double immunofluorescence technique, using anti-vimentin and anti-GFAP antibodies, during the 2nd, 4th and 6th week of culture [34].
  • Vascular endothelial TM was detected on sural nerve biopsies with immunohistochemistry [35].
  • RT-PCR experiments revealed that the parkin gene is expressed in sural nerves from both controls and patient with parkin-related disease [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sural Nerve


  1. Basement membrane reduplication and pericyte degeneration precede development of diabetic polyneuropathy and are associated with its severity. Giannini, C., Dyck, P.J. Ann. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Peripheral nerve abnormality in multiple sclerosis. Pollock, M., Calder, C., Allpress, S. Ann. Neurol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of PMP22 duplication and deletions on the axonal cytoskeleton. Sahenk, Z., Chen, L., Mendell, J.R. Ann. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Endoneurial capillary abnormalities presage deterioration of glucose tolerance and accompany peripheral neuropathy in man. Thrainsdottir, S., Malik, R.A., Dahlin, L.B., Wiksell, P., Eriksson, K.F., Rosén, I., Petersson, J., Greene, D.A., Sundkvist, G. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of long-term aldose reductase inhibition on development of experimental diabetic neuropathy. Ultrastructural and morphometric studies of sural nerve in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Yagihashi, S., Kamijo, M., Ido, Y., Mirrlees, D.J. Diabetes (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Facilitation of the human nociceptive reflex by stimulation of A beta-fibres in a secondary hyperalgesic area sustained by nociceptive input from the primary hyperalgesic area. Andersen, O.K., Gracely, R.H., Arendt-Nielsen, L. Acta Physiol. Scand. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. SEP topographies elicited by innocuous and noxious sural nerve stimulation. I. Identification of stable periods and individual differences. Dowman, R. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Diabetic neuropathy. Structural analysis of nerve hydration by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Griffey, R.H., Eaton, R.P., Sibbitt, R.R., Sibbitt, W.L., Bicknell, J.M. JAMA (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Preventive effect of long-term aldose reductase inhibition (ponalrestat) on nerve conduction and sural nerve structure in the spontaneously diabetic Bio-Breeding rat. Sima, A.A., Prashar, A., Zhang, W.X., Chakrabarti, S., Greene, D.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Partial-liver transplantation to treat familial amyloid polyneuropathy: follow-up of 11 patients. Takei, Y., Ikeda, S., Hashikura, Y., Ikegami, T., Kawasaki, S. Ann. Intern. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Peripheral nerves regenerated in familial amyloid polyneuropathy after liver transplantation. Ikeda, S., Takei, Y., Yanagisawa, N., Matsunami, H., Hashikura, Y., Ikegami, T., Kawasaki, S. Ann. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. A mutation in periaxin is responsible for CMT4F, an autosomal recessive form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Guilbot, A., Williams, A., Ravisé, N., Verny, C., Brice, A., Sherman, D.L., Brophy, P.J., LeGuern, E., Delague, V., Bareil, C., Mégarbané, A., Claustres, M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Sural nerve sorbitol in patients with diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Bril, V., Ono, Y., Buchanan, R.A. Diabetes Care (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Attempts to identify herpes simplex virus DNA in normal and diseased human peripheral nerve. Sze, C.I., Mahalingam, R., Wellish, M., Levy, A.S., Wu, E., Pfister, S.J., Gilden, D.H., Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B.K. Neurology (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Sympathetic postganglionic unmyelinated axons in the rat peripheral nervous system. Chad, D., Bradley, W.G., Rasool, C., Good, P., Reichlin, S., Zivin, J. Neurology (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Pathology of disulfiram neuropathy. Bouldin, T.W., Hall, C.D., Krigman, M.R. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular genetics and neuropathology of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. Lupski, J.R., Garcia, C.A. Brain Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Juvenile-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy: biochemical and electrophysiologic studies. Clark, J.R., Miller, R.G., Vidgoff, J.M. Neurology (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Selective neurotoxicity of clioquinol on the function of the posterior column nuclei. Arasaki, K., Nakanishi, T. Neurosci. Lett. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. PMP-22 gene duplications and deletions identified in archival, paraffin-embedded sural nerve biopsy specimens: correlation to structural changes. Thiex, R., Schröder, J.M. Acta Neuropathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. A mild case of Friedreich ataxia: lymphocyte and sural nerve analysis for GAA repeat length reveals somatic mosaicism. Machkhas, H., Bidichandani, S.I., Patel, P.I., Harati, Y. Muscle Nerve (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Selective expansion and long-term culture of human Schwann cells from sural nerve biopsies. Van den Berg, L.H., Bär, P.R., Sodaar, P., Mollee, I., Wokke, J.J., Logtenberg, T. Ann. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Recovery of the early cellular changes induced by lead in rat peripheral nerves after withdrawal of the toxin. Coria, F., Montón, F. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Effect of aldose reductase inhibition on nerve conduction and morphometry in diabetic neuropathy. Zenarestat Study Group. Greene, D.A., Arezzo, J.C., Brown, M.B. Neurology (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. NT-3 attenuates functional and structural disorders in sensory nerves of galactose-fed rats. Mizisin, A.P., Kalichman, M.W., Bache, M., Dines, K.C., DiStefano, P.S. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. 5-HT receptors involved in opioid-activated descending inhibition of spinal withdrawal reflexes in the decerebrated rabbit. Lo, W.C., Jackson, E., Merriman, A., Harris, J., Clarke, R.W. Pain (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Role of sorbitol accumulation and myo-inositol depletion in paranodal swelling of large myelinated nerve fibers in the insulin-deficient spontaneously diabetic bio-breeding rat. Reversal by insulin replacement, an aldose reductase inhibitor, and myo-inositol. Greene, D.A., Chakrabarti, S., Lattimer, S.A., Sima, A.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Human diabetic endoneurial sorbitol, fructose, and myo-inositol related to sural nerve morphometry. Dyck, P.J., Sherman, W.R., Hallcher, L.M., Service, F.J., O'Brien, P.C., Grina, L.A., Palumbo, P.J., Swanson, C.J. Ann. Neurol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. Phenytoin neuropathy: structural changes in the sural nerve. Ramirez, J.A., Mendell, J.R., Warmolts, J.R., Griggs, R.C. Ann. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. A variant form of metachromatic leukodystrophy without arylsulfatase deficiency. Hahn, A.F., Gordon, B.A., Hinton, G.G., Gilbert, J.J. Ann. Neurol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  31. IgM deposits on skin nerves in anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein neuropathy. Lombardi, R., Erne, B., Lauria, G., Pareyson, D., Borgna, M., Morbin, M., Arnold, A., Czaplinski, A., Fuhr, P., Schaeren-Wiemers, N., Steck, A.J. Ann. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Molecular diagnosis of PMP22-associated neuropathies using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on archival peripheral nerve tissue preparations. Liehr, T., Grehl, H., Rautenstrauss, B. Acta Neuropathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: histopathological features of the peripheral myelin protein (PMP22) duplication (CMT1A) and connexin32 mutations (CMTX1). Sander, S., Nicholson, G.A., Ouvrier, R.A., McLeod, J.G., Pollard, J.D. Muscle Nerve (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. GFAP expression of human Schwann cells in tissue culture. Bianchini, D., De Martini, I., Cadoni, A., Zicca, A., Tabaton, M., Schenone, A., Anfosso, S., Akkad Wattar, A.S., Zaccheo, D., Mancardi, G.L. Brain Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Reduced thrombomodulin in human peripheral nerve microvasculature. Hafer-Macko, C.E., Ivey, F.M., Gyure, K.A., Sorkin, J.D., Macko, R.F. Muscle Nerve (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Does parkin play a role in the peripheral nervous system? A family report. Abbruzzese, G., Pigullo, S., Schenone, A., Bellone, E., Marchese, R., Di Maria, E., Benedetti, L., Ciotti, P., Nobbio, L., Bonifati, V., Ajmar, F., Mandich, P. Mov. Disord. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Transthyretin Ile73Val is associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy in a Bangladeshi family. Mutations in brief no. 158. Online. Booth, D.R., Gillmore, J.D., Persey, M.R., Booth, S.E., Cafferty, K.D., Tennent, G.A., Madhoo, S., Cochrane, S.W., Whitehead, T.C., Pasvol, G., Hawkins, P.N. Hum. Mutat. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Intra-axonal recording from large sensory myelinated axons: demonstration of impaired membrane conductances in early experimental diabetes. Kriz, J., Padjen, A.L. Diabetologia (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Specific effect of venlafaxine on single and repetitive experimental painful stimuli in humans. Enggaard, T.P., Klitgaard, N.A., Gram, L.F., Arendt-Nielsen, L., Sindrup, S.H. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  40. Immune reactive C3d on the surface of myelin sheaths in neuropathy. Hays, A.P., Lee, S.S., Latov, N. J. Neuroimmunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
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