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Chemical Compound Review

pemoline     2-amino-5-phenyl-1,3-oxazol- 4-one

Synonyms: Azoxodon, Deltamin, Kethamed, Pemolina, Cylert, ...
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Disease relevance of Phenoxazole


Psychiatry related information on Phenoxazole


High impact information on Phenoxazole


Chemical compound and disease context of Phenoxazole


Biological context of Phenoxazole


Anatomical context of Phenoxazole


Associations of Phenoxazole with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Phenoxazole

  • Altogether, these studies have demonstrated the efficacy of methylphenidate, pemoline, and monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitors when administered to adult ADHD patients; a robust response was produced in 60% of the patients [27].
  • (3) The first medical literature report of a serious ADR ascribed to pemoline was in a 1989 letter to the editor [28].
  • The effect of pemoline on neuroprocessing is apparent within the first 2 hours after administration with an inverse relationship between plasma pemoline and prolactin concentration present at hour one only (r = 0.84; p = 0.005) [29].
  • Possible rhabdomyolysis manifested by evaluation of serum CPK was also observed in 3 of 4 patients in whom this laboratory parameter was measured and appears to be a common finding in acute pemoline poisoning [30].
  • Treatment with pemoline produced no P300 changes [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Phenoxazole


  1. Chorea in long-term use of pemoline. Singh, B.K., Singh, A., Chusid, E. Ann. Neurol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Pemoline and urinary excretion of catecholamines and indoleamines in children with attention deficit disorder. Zametkin, A.J., Linnoila, M., Karoum, F., Sallee, R. The American journal of psychiatry. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of psychostimulants for the treatment of fatigue in ambulatory patients with human immunodeficiency virus disease. Breitbart, W., Rosenfeld, B., Kaim, M., Funesti-Esch, J. Arch. Intern. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Pemoline-associated fulminant liver failure: testing the evidence for causation. Berkovitch, M., Pope, E., Phillips, J., Koren, G. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Pemoline abuse. Polchert, S.E., Morse, R.M. JAMA (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Pemoline-induced Tourette's disorder: a case report. Bachman, D.S. The American journal of psychiatry. (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Treatment of narcolepsy: objective studies on methylphenidate, pemoline, and protriptyline. Mitler, M.M., Shafor, R., Hajdukovich, R., Timms, R.M., Browman, C.P. Sleep. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Pemoline effects on children with ADHD: a time-response by dose-response analysis on classroom measures. Pelham, W.E., Swanson, J.M., Furman, M.B., Schwindt, H. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. New medication strategies for comorbid substance use and bipolar affective disorders. Kosten, T.R., Kosten, T.A. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Fatigue therapy in multiple sclerosis: results of a double-blind, randomized, parallel trial of amantadine, pemoline, and placebo. Krupp, L.B., Coyle, P.K., Doscher, C., Miller, A., Cross, A.H., Jandorf, L., Halper, J., Johnson, B., Morgante, L., Grimson, R. Neurology (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. The effects of amantadine and pemoline on cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis. Geisler, M.W., Sliwinski, M., Coyle, P.K., Masur, D.M., Doscher, C., Krupp, L.B. Arch. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Tape test as a simple new method for the study of compounds increasing the problem-solving ability of the rat. Ezer, E., Szporny, L. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. The Texas Children's Medication Algorithm Project: revision of the algorithm for pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pliszka, S.R., Crismon, M.L., Hughes, C.W., Corners, C.K., Emslie, G.J., Jensen, P.S., McCracken, J.T., Swanson, J.M., Lopez, M. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Pemoline induced acute choreoathetosis: case report and review of the literature. Stork, C.M., Cantor, R. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Oral pemoline kinetics in hyperactive children. Sallee, F., Stiller, R., Perel, J., Bates, T. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Pemoline-induced abnormal involuntary movements. Sallee, F.R., Stiller, R.L., Perel, J.M., Everett, G. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Markowitz, J.S., Patrick, K.S. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Sensitive GLC assay for pemoline in biological fluids using nitrogen-specific detection. Hoffman, D.J. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. The pharmacokinetics, plasma protein binding and time response relationships of 2-amino-5-phenyl-2-oxazolin-4-one (pemoline) in the horse. Igwe, O.J., Blake, J.W. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Intelligence as a factor in evoked potential studies of psychopathology. I. Comparison of low and high IQ subjects. Shagass, C., Roemer, R.A., Straumanis, J.J., Josiassen, R.C. Biol. Psychiatry (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. The effects of pemoline on nuclear fusion, karyokinesis, and cytokinesis in caffeine treated cells. Röper, W. Arzneimittel-Forschung. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Pharmacological treatment of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents: focus on guidelines for the primary care practitioner. Carrey, N.J., Wiggins, D.M., Milin, R.P. Drugs (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. CNS stimulant potentiation of monoamine oxidase inhibitors in treatment-refractory depression. Fawcett, J., Kravitz, H.M., Zajecka, J.M., Schaff, M.R. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Drugs affecting the central nervous system: effects of pemoline and tricyclic antidepressants on nerve terminal adenosine triphosphatase activities and neurotransmitter release. Gilbert, J.C., Allen, J.M., Townsend, B.G., Wyllie, M.G. Neuropharmacology (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. Etiologies and sequelae of excessive daytime sleepiness. Roth, T., Roehrs, T.A. Clinical therapeutics. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparative effects of pemoline, amfonelic acid and amphetamine on dopamine uptake and release in vitro and on brain 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentration in spiperone-treated rats. Fuller, R.W., Perry, K.W., Bymaster, F.P., Wong, D.T. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  27. Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults. Wender, P.H. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Pemoline hepatotoxicity and postmarketing surveillance. Safer, D.J., Zito, J.M., Gardner, J.E. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Pharmacodynamics of pemoline in attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Sallee, F.R., Stiller, R.L., Perel, J.M. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Pemoline ingestion in children: a report of five cases and review of the literature. Nakamura, H., Blumer, J.L., Reed, M.D. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Abnormal auditory P300 topography in attention deficit disorder predicts poor response to pemoline. Sangal, J.M., Sangal, R.B., Persky, B. Clinical EEG (electroencephalography). (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Pemoline in attention deficit disorder and alcoholism: a case study. Turnquist, K., Frances, R., Rosenfeld, W., Mobarak, A. The American journal of psychiatry. (1983) [Pubmed]
  33. Controlled trial of high doses of pemoline for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Wilens, T.E., Biederman, J., Spencer, T.J., Frazier, J., Prince, J., Bostic, J., Rater, M., Soriano, J., Hatch, M., Sienna, M., Millstein, R.B., Abrantes, A. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. A study of compliance with FDA recommendations for pemoline (Cylert). Willy, M.E., Manda, B., Shatin, D., Drinkard, C.R., Graham, D.J. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
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