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Chemical Compound Review

Adenovir     2-amino-9-[4-hydroxy-3...

Synonyms: Vectavir, Denavir, Pencyclovir, penciclovir, Penciclovirum, ...
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Disease relevance of Vectavir


High impact information on Vectavir

  • Pain (median, 3.5 days vs 4.1 days; HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.09-1.36; P<.001) and lesion virus shedding (median, 3 days vs 3 days; HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.10-1.64; P=.003) also resolved more quickly for penciclovir-treated patients compared with patients who applied the vehicle control [1].
  • In DHBV-infected duck hepatocytes, penciclovir effectively inhibited viral replication, with a concentration giving half-maximal inhibition of 0.25 microM [3].
  • Synergistic inhibition of hepadnaviral replication by lamivudine in combination with penciclovir in vitro [4].
  • Lamivudine ([-]-beta-L-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine [3TC]) and penciclovir (9-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxymethyl]guanine [PCV]) are potent inhibitors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication [4].
  • Cessation of antiviral prophylaxis resulted in reversion of this patient's HSV-2 isolates to acyclovir and penciclovir sensitivity, although resistant virus reappeared when antiviral prophylaxis was resumed [5].

Chemical compound and disease context of Vectavir


Biological context of Vectavir


Anatomical context of Vectavir


Associations of Vectavir with other chemical compounds

  • Plasma and urine specimens were analyzed for concentrations of penciclovir, the antivirally active metabolite of famciclovir, by reverse-phase HPLC [20].
  • Antiherpetic activity of (1'S,2'R)-9-([1',2'-bis(hydroxymethyl)cycloprop-1'yl]methyl)guanine (A-5021) was compared with those of acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV) in cell cultures [21].
  • A putative PT was also studied in the transient transfection system and appeared similar to the TK in phosphorylating GCV and conferring sensitivity to GCV, but not in BVdU- or PCV-mediated cell killing [22].
  • Famciclovir, a synthetic acyclic guanine derivative, is a prodrug which, after oral administration, is rapidly metabolised to the highly bioavailable antiviral compound penciclovir [23].
  • The ganciclovir-, penciclovir- and valaciclovir-resistant isolates also contained mutations within MCMV M97 identical or similar to recognized GCV-resistant mutations of HCMV UL97 protein kinase, and demonstrated cross-resistance to antivirals of the same class [24].

Gene context of Vectavir


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Vectavir


  1. Penciclovir cream for the treatment of herpes simplex labialis. A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Topical Penciclovir Collaborative Study Group. Spruance, S.L., Rea, T.L., Thoming, C., Tucker, R., Saltzman, R., Boon, R. JAMA (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Herpes simplex virus resistance to acyclovir and penciclovir after two decades of antiviral therapy. Bacon, T.H., Levin, M.J., Leary, J.J., Sarisky, R.T., Sutton, D. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Antiviral activities of penciclovir and famciclovir on duck hepatitis B virus in vitro and in vivo. Offensperger, W.B., Offensperger, S., Keppler-Hafkemeyer, A., Hafkemeyer, P., Blum, H.E. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Synergistic inhibition of hepadnaviral replication by lamivudine in combination with penciclovir in vitro. Colledge, D., Locarnini, S., Shaw, T. Hepatology (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Recurrent antiviral-resistant genital herpes in an immunocompetent patient. Kriesel, J.D., Spruance, S.L., Prichard, M., Parker, J.N., Kern, E.R. J. Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of murine gamma herpesvirus 68 replication by selected antiviral agents. Neyts, J., De Clercq, E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Long-term therapy with the guanine nucleoside analog penciclovir controls chronic duck hepatitis B virus infection in vivo. Lin, E., Luscombe, C., Colledge, D., Wang, Y.Y., Locarnini, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. In vitro antiviral activity of penciclovir, a novel purine nucleoside, against duck hepatitis B virus. Shaw, T., Amor, P., Civitico, G., Boyd, M., Locarnini, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. CL1-SR39: A noninvasive molecular imaging model of prostate cancer suicide gene therapy using positron emission tomography. Pantuck, A.J., Berger, F., Zisman, A., Nguyen, D., Tso, C.L., Matherly, J., Gambhir, S.S., Belldegrun, A.S. J. Urol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Trifluridine, cidofovir, and penciclovir in the treatment of experimental herpetic keratitis. Kaufman, H.E., Varnell, E.D., Thompson, H.W. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. The clinical pharmacokinetics of famciclovir. Gill, K.S., Wood, M.J. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Mode of action of 9-(4-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethylbut-1-yl)guanine (BRL 39123) against herpes simplex virus in MRC-5 cells. Hodge, R.A., Perkins, R.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Penciclovir is a selective inhibitor of hepatitis B virus replication in cultured human hepatoblastoma cells. Korba, B.E., Boyd, M.R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Antiherpesvirus activity of 9-(4-hydroxy-3-hydroxy-methylbut-1-yl)guanine (BRL 39123) in cell culture. Boyd, M.R., Bacon, T.H., Sutton, D., Cole, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Antiherpesvirus activity of 9-(4-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethylbut-1-yl) guanine (BRL 39123) in animals. Boyd, M.R., Bacon, T.H., Sutton, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. In vitro oxidation of famciclovir and 6-deoxypenciclovir by aldehyde oxidase from human, guinea pig, rabbit, and rat liver. Rashidi, M.R., Smith, J.A., Clarke, S.E., Beedham, C. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Lack of effect of treatment with penciclovir or acyclovir on the establishment of latent HSV-1 in primary sensory neurons in culture. Smith, R.L., Morroni, J., Wilcox, C.L. Antiviral Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. The tolerance to and pharmacokinetics of penciclovir (BRL 39,123A), a novel antiherpes agent, administered by intravenous infusion to healthy subjects. Fowles, S.E., Pierce, D.M., Prince, W.T., Staniforth, D. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Penciclovir and pathogenesis phenotypes of drug-resistant Herpes simplex virus mutants. Pelosi, E., Mulamba, G.B., Coen, D.M. Antiviral Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Pharmacokinetics of famciclovir in subjects with varying degrees of renal impairment. Boike, S.C., Pue, M.A., Freed, M.I., Audet, P.R., Fairless, A., Ilson, B.E., Zariffa, N., Jorkasky, D.K. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Antiherpesvirus activities of (1'S,2'R)-9-[[1',2'-bis(hydroxymethyl)cycloprop-1'-yl]methyl]guanine (A-5021) in cell culture. Iwayama, S., Ono, N., Ohmura, Y., Suzuki, K., Aoki, M., Nakazawa, H., Oikawa, M., Kato, T., Okunishi, M., Nishiyama, Y., Yamanishi, K. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Induction of Epstein-Barr virus kinases to sensitize tumor cells to nucleoside analogues. Moore, S.M., Cannon, J.S., Tanhehco, Y.C., Hamzeh, F.M., Ambinder, R.F. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Famciclovir. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in herpesvirus infections. Perry, C.M., Wagstaff, A.J. Drugs (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Murine cytomegalovirus resistant to antivirals has genetic correlates with human cytomegalovirus. Scott, G.M., Ng, H.L., Morton, C.J., Parker, M.W., Rawlinson, W.D. J. Gen. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Sequence analysis of thymidine kinase-defective mutants of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1). Corrochano, L.M., Madueño, F., Field, H.J., de la Fuente, R. Gene (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Selection of an oral prodrug (BRL 42810; famciclovir) for the antiherpesvirus agent BRL 39123 [9-(4-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethylbut-l-yl)guanine; penciclovir]. Vere Hodge, R.A., Sutton, D., Boyd, M.R., Harnden, M.R., Jarvest, R.L. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Hepatitis B virus polymerase mutations during antiviral therapy in a patient following liver transplantation. Aye, T.T., Bartholomeusz, A., Shaw, T., Bowden, S., Breschkin, A., McMillan, J., Angus, P., Locarnini, S. J. Hepatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. In vitro activities of penciclovir and acyclovir against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. Weinberg, A., Bate, B.J., Masters, H.B., Schneider, S.A., Clark, J.C., Wren, C.G., Allaman, J.A., Levin, M.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. The role of stratum corneum and dermal microvascular perfusion in penetration and tissue levels of water-soluble drugs investigated by microdialysis. Morgan, C.J., Renwick, A.G., Friedmann, P.S. Br. J. Dermatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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