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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Virus Shedding

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Disease relevance of Virus Shedding

  • Among acyclovir-treated patients with first-episode primary genital herpes, the mean duration of viral shedding (4.1 days) and the time to complete crusting of lesions present at the initiation of therapy (7.1 days) were shorter than among placebo recipients (7.0 and 10.5 days, respectively) (P less than 0.05) [1].
  • CONCLUSION: Naproxen treatment did not alter virus shedding or serum neutralizing antibody responses in participants with experimental rhinovirus colds, but it had a beneficial effect on the symptoms of headache, malaise, myalgia, and cough [2].
  • HIV viral shedding in semen: lack of correlation with systemic virus-specific CD8 responses [3].
  • Chimeric virus 319.1v, which contained only the CS E2 glycoprotein in the Brescia background, was markedly attenuated in pigs, exhibiting significantly decreased virus replication in tonsils, a transient viremia, limited generalization of infection, and decreased virus shedding [4].
  • We have shown that rotavirus 2/6 viruslike particles composed of proteins VP2 and VP6 (2/6-VLPs) administered to mice intranasally with cholera toxin (CT) induced protection from rotavirus challenge, as measured by virus shedding [5].

High impact information on Virus Shedding

  • The time to complete healing (P = 0.01), time to 50 percent reductions in the size of the lesions (P = 0.01) and the pain score (P = 0.004), and time to the end of viral shedding (P = 0.006) were all significantly shorter in the patients assigned to foscarnet [6].
  • Among the patients who received acyclovir, the rates of recovery of virus from the blood and urine were significantly reduced, but the rate of viral shedding from the pharynx was not significantly different from that in the placebo group [7].
  • Viral shedding and transmission between hosts determined by reovirus L2 gene [8].
  • Viral shedding was inhibited in contacts taking oseltamivir, with 84% protective efficacy (95% CI, 57%-95%; P<.001) [9].
  • Pain (median, 3.5 days vs 4.1 days; HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.09-1.36; P<.001) and lesion virus shedding (median, 3 days vs 3 days; HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.10-1.64; P=.003) also resolved more quickly for penciclovir-treated patients compared with patients who applied the vehicle control [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Virus Shedding


Biological context of Virus Shedding


Anatomical context of Virus Shedding


Associations of Virus Shedding with chemical compounds


Gene context of Virus Shedding

  • In contrast, TNF-alpha responses peaked later (day 3 in plasma, day 4 in nasal fluids), when viral shedding and symptoms were subsiding [30].
  • Moreover, vaccination of adult Stat1(-/-) mice with a rotavirus VP6 protein and the mucosal adjuvant Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin LT (R192G) elicited 94% protection, as measured by the total reduction in viral shedding for the group in comparison to unimmunized controls [31].
  • Among infected subjects, there was a transient postinoculation increase in interleukin-8 (IL-8) in NLF to an average of 2.7-fold compared to baseline, followed by a prolonged increase (maximum mean 5.4-fold) during virus shedding [32].
  • RANTES, MIP-1alpha, and MCP-1 all increased during virus shedding only (maximum mean increases of 5.3-fold, 13-fold, and 7.2-fold, respectively) [32].
  • We found that 40% of young beta 2m-/- mice were shedding virus from the lung on day 9 (mean titer of 0.3 log10 TCID[50]), with a maximal anti-influenza class II CTL activity of 68+/-2% on day 7 [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Virus Shedding


  1. A trial of topical acyclovir in genital herpes simplex virus infections. Corey, L., Nahmias, A.J., Guinan, M.E., Benedetti, J.K., Critchlow, C.W., Holmes, K.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of naproxen on experimental rhinovirus colds. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Sperber, S.J., Hendley, J.O., Hayden, F.G., Riker, D.K., Sorrentino, J.V., Gwaltney, J.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. HIV viral shedding in semen: lack of correlation with systemic virus-specific CD8 responses. Sheth, P.M., Shahabi, K., Rebbapragada, A., Kovacs, C., Dimayuga, R., Chackalakkal, S., MacDonald, K., Mazzulli, T., Kaul, R. AIDS (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. The E2 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus is a virulence determinant in swine. Risatti, G.R., Borca, M.V., Kutish, G.F., Lu, Z., Holinka, L.G., French, R.A., Tulman, E.R., Rock, D.L. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Rotavirus 2/6 viruslike particles administered intranasally with cholera toxin, Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT), and LT-R192G induce protection from rotavirus challenge. O'Neal, C.M., Clements, J.D., Estes, M.K., Conner, M.E. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. A controlled trial comparing foscarnet with vidarabine for acyclovir-resistant mucocutaneous herpes simplex in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Safrin, S., Crumpacker, C., Chatis, P., Davis, R., Hafner, R., Rush, J., Kessler, H.A., Landry, B., Mills, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of oral acyclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of renal allografts. Balfour, H.H., Chace, B.A., Stapleton, J.T., Simmons, R.L., Fryd, D.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Viral shedding and transmission between hosts determined by reovirus L2 gene. Keroack, M., Fields, B.N. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Effectiveness of oseltamivir in preventing influenza in household contacts: a randomized controlled trial. Welliver, R., Monto, A.S., Carewicz, O., Schatteman, E., Hassman, M., Hedrick, J., Jackson, H.C., Huson, L., Ward, P., Oxford, J.S. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Penciclovir cream for the treatment of herpes simplex labialis. A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Topical Penciclovir Collaborative Study Group. Spruance, S.L., Rea, T.L., Thoming, C., Tucker, R., Saltzman, R., Boon, R. JAMA (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Famciclovir suppression of asymptomatic and symptomatic recurrent anogenital herpes simplex virus shedding in women: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-center trial. Sacks, S.L. J. Infect. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Lack of effect of oral ribavirin in naturally occurring influenza A virus (H1N1) infection. Smith, C.B., Charette, R.P., Fox, J.P., Cooney, M.K., Hall, C.E. J. Infect. Dis. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Kinetics of ocular herpes simplex virus shedding induced by epinephrine iontophoresis. Kwon, B.S., Gangarosa, L.P., Green, K., Hill, J.M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Oseltamivir: a review of its use in influenza. McClellan, K., Perry, C.M. Drugs (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Antiviral therapy with ganciclovir for cytomegalovirus retinitis and bilateral exudative retinal detachments in an immunocompromised child. Rosecan, L.R., Laskin, O.L., Kalman, C.M., Haik, B.G., Ellsworth, R.M. Ophthalmology (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Oral acyclovir in the treatment of acute herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Cobo, L.M., Foulks, G.N., Liesegang, T., Lass, J., Sutphin, J.E., Wilhelmus, K., Jones, D.B., Chapman, S., Segreti, A.C., King, D.H. Ophthalmology (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of oral acyclovir treatment on symptomatic and asymptomatic virus shedding in recurrent genital herpes. Straus, S.E., Seidlin, M., Takiff, H.E., Rooney, J.F., Felser, J.M., Smith, H.A., Roane, P., Johnson, F., Hallahan, C., Ostrove, J.M. Sexually transmitted diseases. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Treatment of mucocutaneous herpes simplex infections with acyclovir. Krusinski, P.A. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Antibody responses to human rotavirus (HRV) in gnotobiotic pigs following a new prime/boost vaccine strategy using oral attenuated HRV priming and intranasal VP2/6 rotavirus-like particle (VLP) boosting with ISCOM. González, A.M., Nguyen, T.V., Azevedo, M.S., Jeong, K., Agarib, F., Iosef, C., Chang, K., Lovgren-Bengtsson, K., Morein, B., Saif, L.J. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. alpha(4)beta(7) independent pathway for CD8(+) T cell-mediated intestinal immunity to rotavirus. Kuklin, N.A., Rott, L., Darling, J., Campbell, J.J., Franco, M., Feng, N., Müller, W., Wagner, N., Altman, J., Butcher, E.C., Greenberg, H.B. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Parainfluenza virus infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: risk factors, response to antiviral therapy, and effect on transplant outcome. Nichols, W.G., Corey, L., Gooley, T., Davis, C., Boeckh, M. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Oral LY217896 for prevention of experimental influenza A virus infection and illness in humans. Hayden, F.G., Tunkel, A.R., Treanor, J.J., Betts, R.F., Allerheiligen, S., Harris, J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Immune responses and protection obtained with rotavirus VP6 DNA vaccines given by intramuscular injection. Yang, K., Wang, S., Chang, K.O., Lu, S., Saif, L.J., Greenberg, H.B., Brinker, J.P., Herrmann, J.E. Vaccine (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Acyclovir prophylaxis of oral herpes virus during bone marrow transplantation. Epstein, J.B., Ransier, A., Sherlock, C.H., Spinelli, J.J., Reece, D. Eur. J. Cancer, B, Oral Oncol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Treatment of first episodes of genital herpes simplex virus infection with oral acyclovir. A randomized double-blind controlled trial in normal subjects. Bryson, Y.J., Dillon, M., Lovett, M., Acuna, G., Taylor, S., Cherry, J.D., Johnson, B.L., Wiesmeier, E., Growdon, W., Creagh-Kirk, T., Keeney, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Patient-initiated, twice-daily oral famciclovir for early recurrent genital herpes. A randomized, double-blind multicenter trial. Canadian Famciclovir Study Group. Sacks, S.L., Aoki, F.Y., Diaz-Mitoma, F., Sellors, J., Shafran, S.D. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Ribavirin treatment of experimental respiratory syncytial viral infection. A controlled double-blind study in young adults. Hall, C.B., Walsh, E.E., Hruska, J.F., Betts, R.F., Hall, W.J. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Herpes zoster. The treatment and prevention of neuralgia with adenosine monophosphate. Sklar, S.H., Blue, W.T., Alexander, E.J., Bodian, C.A. JAMA (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Ineffectiveness of topical idoxuridine in dimethyl sulfoxide for therapy for genital herpes. Silvestri, D.L., Corey, L., Holmes, K.K. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  30. Local and systemic cytokine responses during experimental human influenza A virus infection. Relation to symptom formation and host defense. Hayden, F.G., Fritz, R., Lobo, M.C., Alvord, W., Strober, W., Straus, S.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. The role of interferons in rotavirus infections and protection. Vancott, J.L., McNeal, M.M., Choi, A.H., Ward, R.L. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Chemokines in nasal secretions of normal adults experimentally infected with respiratory syncytial virus. Noah, T.L., Becker, S. Clin. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Influenza infection of beta 2-microglobulin-deficient (beta 2m-/-) mice reveals a loss of CD4+ T cell functions with aging. Taylor, S.F., Cottey, R.J., Zander, D.S., Bender, B.S. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Rapid onset of protection following vaccination of calves with multivalent vaccines containing modified-live or modified-live and killed BHV-1 is associated with virus-specific interferon gamma production. Woolums, A.R., Siger, L., Johnson, S., Gallo, G., Conlon, J. Vaccine (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Effect of immunization and immunosuppression on induced ocular shedding and recovery of herpes simplex virus in infected rabbits. Green, M.T., Dunkel, E.C., Pavan-Langston, D. Exp. Eye Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  36. Diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection in cyclosporin-treated renal allograft recipients. Morris, D.J., Fox, A.J., Klapper, P.E. J. Med. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  37. Emotional style, nasal cytokines, and illness expression after experimental rhinovirus exposure. Doyle, W.J., Gentile, D.A., Cohen, S. Brain Behav. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  38. The clinical use of intravenous acyclovir. Hopefl, A.W. Drug intelligence & clinical pharmacy. (1983) [Pubmed]
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