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Chemical Compound Review

AC1NUTAL     silver chloride

Synonyms: CHEBI:30341, AC1Q1RLD, [AgCl], silver(1+) chloride
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Disease relevance of SILVER CHLORIDE

  • In the present study, we have investigated the possible consequences of the chloride channel defect in the intestine of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients for electrolyte and water transport in the jejunum in vivo, using a multilumen, double occluding balloon catheter, and an Ag/AgCl intraluminal electrode [1].
  • PSII isolated from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus was immobilized on the surface of a screen-printed sensor composed of a graphite working electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode deposited on a polymeric substrate [2].
  • In 18 patients who underwent an electrophysiological study for various arrhythmias, we performed MAP recordings with both 1.3-mm2 and 6-mm2 tip surface area fractal-coated iridium and standard silver--silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrodes in the high right atrium and two ventricular positions [3].
  • To study ileal motility, 14 young turkeys were surgically prepared with a fistula and 3 bipolar Ag/AgCl electrodes in the ileum [4].
  • Silver toxicity to Pseudomonas stutzeri AG259 was strongly dependent on the NaCl concentration in the medium, which reduced the availability of Ag+ by precipitation as AgCl [5].

Psychiatry related information on SILVER CHLORIDE

  • The initial potential was 0.0 V and the switching potential 1.1 V (versus Ag/AgCl) and the response time was approximately 300 ms [6].
  • The reaction product was also found to be polarographically reducible at the Dropping Mercury Electrode (DME) with E1/2 of-0.9 V vs. Ag/AgCl electrode and a diffusion current constant (Id) of 0.85 +/- 0.02 [7].

High impact information on SILVER CHLORIDE

  • Monophasic action potentials (MAP) were recorded in ventricular and atrial myocardium by use of custom-made Ag/AgCl electrode catheters [8].
  • However, AgCl and pClHgBzO inhibited inositol trisphosphate (InsP3)-induced Ca2+ release from platelet membranes and this effect was reversed by dithiothreitol [9].
  • The quinone/semiquinone and semiquinone/hydroquinone midpoint potentials (E(q/sq) and E(sq/hq)) at pH 7 were determined to be -340 and -585 mV vs Ag/AgCl, in good agreement with the literature [10].
  • Its redox potential, -0.195 V versus Ag/AgCl, is 0.8 V reducing relative to that of Os(bpy)(2+/3+), its 2,2'-bipyridine analogue [11].
  • In the physiological pH 7.3 electrolyte battery or biofuel cell, the O2 cathode should operate at, or positive of, 0.3 V (Ag/AgCl), where the urate anion, a common serum component, is electrooxidized [12].

Biological context of SILVER CHLORIDE

  • The photocycle kinetics, however, is sensitively affected by the electrode potential such that at 0.0 V (versus Ag/AgCl) the decay times of M(L)(400) and M(1)(400) are drastically slowed down [13].
  • The phenolic derivatives obtained by alkaline hydrolysis oxidize at a relatively lower potential (0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl), which increases the sensitivity drastically [14].
  • The respiratory activity of the microorganisms was monitored by oxygen consumption at -600 mV vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode [15].
  • This unique feature as well as the wide substrate specificity of PSAO was successfully utilised in the construction of an amperometric biosensor based on a carbon paste electrode for the fast and sensitive detection of various amines at a formal potential 0 mV versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode [16].
  • Silver accumulation in toadfish gills and plasma decreased as salinity increased, indicating low bioavailability of AgCl complexes [17].

Anatomical context of SILVER CHLORIDE

  • Unitary activity was recorded in 70 uncut dorsal root filaments (L6-S1) in 15 decerebrate cats using bipolar Ag/AgCl electrodes [18].
  • Skin conductance activity in the frequency band 0.005-0.48 Hz, an index of sweat gland activity, was measured using Ag/AgCl electrodes on the palmar surfaces of fingers and across the forehead [19].
  • Surface Ag/AgCl electrodes were used to stimulate the posterior tibial nerve using a constant current stimulator and to record the soleus EMG [20].
  • The local consumption of molecular oxygen caused by the metabolic activity of the immobilized cells was amperometrically determined at the underlying screen-printed gold electrodes at a working potential of -600 mV vs. Ag/AgCl [21].
  • Two Ag/AgCl-electrodes were attached at the right seventh or eighth intercostal space between the midclavicular and anterior axillary line; two Ag/AgCl-electrodes were paravertebrally attached on the right side lateral to vertebrae T12-L1 or L1-2 [22].

Associations of SILVER CHLORIDE with other chemical compounds

  • A dual microelectrode electrochemical time-of-flight technique in which diffusion flux of Ag(+), Cl(-), or H(+) ions electrochemically produced at a generator electrode is measured by recording potential-time transients with Ag, Ag/AgCl, or iridium oxide potentiometric microsensors, respectively, is developed [23].
  • Selectivity of the CFVMs for dopamine over ascorbate was enhanced to better than 2000:1 by coating with Naflon, a perfluorinated cation exchange polymer, using a low (+0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl) electroplating potential [24].
  • In the resulting thin layer the POP was well "wired". When the electrode was poised at 0.4 V vs Ag/ AgCl, the sensitivity at pH 6 was 0.26 A cm(-2) M(-1) and the current increased linearly with the pyruvate concentration through the 2 x 10(-6) - 6 x 10(-4) M range [25].
  • The cinder/ruthenium purple hybrid-modified carbon paste electrode (designated as CPE/CFe*-RP) was worked out for hydrodynamic analysis of H2O2 at a low detecting potential of 0.0 V versus Ag/AgCl in pH 7 ammonium buffer solution [26].
  • Following separation by liquid chromatography (LC), the determination of both GSH and GSSG in rat whole blood was achieved at a constant potential (1.50 V vs Ag/AgCl), and the limits of detection for GSH and GSSG were found to be 1.4 nM (0.028 pmol) and 1.9 nM (0.037 pmol) with a linear calibration range up to 0.25 mM [27].

Gene context of SILVER CHLORIDE

  • A Delta E(p) of 425 mV (vs Ag/AgCl; pH 7.0) was observed [28].
  • In pH 5.0 phosphate buffer solution, the apparent formal potential (E(o)') of catalase was -0.131 V (vs Ag/AgCl) [29].
  • Optimal buffer conditions (10 mmol/L phosphate containing 20 mmol/L SDS, pH 7.2), detection potential (+1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl), and electrokinetic injection 10 s with the separation voltage of 24 kV were employed to achieve the baseline separation of six pineal hormones within 15 min [30].
  • SOx in direct electronic communication with the electrode surface gave a quasi-reversible electrochemical signal with a midpoint potential of--120 mV vs Ag/AgCl corresponding to the redox transformations of the heme domain of SOx and with a heterogeneous ET constant in the order of 15 s(-1) [31].
  • The observed results and the redox potentials (vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode) measured by cyclic voltammetry at pH 1.8 for TMC (719 mV) and the 4- and 5-HTMC derivatives (519 and 443 mV, respectively) supported the previously proposed mechanism for inactivation of the nAcChR by TMC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[32]

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SILVER CHLORIDE

  • In this study, data recorded with glass microelectrodes or antimony electrodes, both with external cutaneous Ag/AgCl reference electrodes, connected to two different recording devices are compared [33].
  • High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and spatially resolved electron loss spectroscopy have revealed that a eutectic mixture of AgCl and AgI crystallizes within single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as metastable AgCl(1-)(x)I(x) 1D solid solution crystals [34].
  • Fabrication of a planar-form screen-printed solid electrolyte modified Ag/AgCl reference electrode for application in a potentiometric biosensor [35].
  • The method is based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with reductive electrochemical detection at -750 mV (vs Ag/AgCl) in combination with a patented sampling chamber that was designed especially for the purpose to determine oxygen at nanomolar levels [36].
  • Oxidative electrochemical redox titrations yielded midpoint potentials of Em1= -0.02 +/- 0.01 V and Em2 = 0.16 +/- 0.04 V for heme b and Em1 = 0.13 +/- 0.04 V and Em2 = 0.22 +/- 0.03 V for heme a(3) (vs Ag/AgCl/3 M KCl) [37].


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  22. A comparison between anterior and posterior monitoring of neuromuscular blockade at the diaphragm: both sites can be used interchangeably. Hemmerling, T.M., Schmidt, J., Schurr, C., Breuer, G., Jacobi, K.E. Anesth. Analg. (2002) [Pubmed]
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