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Chemical Compound Review

MAGNESIUM     magnesium

Synonyms: magnesio, HSDB 654, AG-B-24417, CHEMBL2146125, ACMC-209oug, ...
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Disease relevance of magnesium

  • The second Leicester Intravenous Magnesium Intervention Trial (LIMIT-2) examined the effect of an intravenous regimen of magnesium sulphate in 2316 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction [1].
  • INTERPRETATION: Magnesium sulphate halves the risk of eclampsia, and probably reduces the risk of maternal death [2].
  • Cellular [ATP] was preserved throughout hypoxia, as assessed using the probe Magnesium Green [3].
  • BACKGROUND: Magnesium supplementation may reduce the incidence of arrhythmias, which often occur after cardiac surgery; however, recent findings of the effectiveness of magnesium prophylaxis have yielded discrepant results [4].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Magnesium sulfate is well tolerated after acute stroke and has no deleterious hemodynamic effects at this dose [5].

Psychiatry related information on magnesium


High impact information on magnesium


Chemical compound and disease context of magnesium


Biological context of magnesium


Anatomical context of magnesium

  • RESULTS: Magnesium concentrations in erythrocytes, serum (total and ultrafilterable), and urine were significantly lower when dietary magnesium was lower [21].
  • Structural dynamics of bacterial ribosomes. V. Magnesium-dependent dissociation of tight couples into subunits: measurements of dissociation constants and exchange rates [22].
  • Magnesium ion-dependent contraction of skinned frog muscle fibers in calcium-free solution [23].
  • The mgtC Gene of Burkholderia cenocepacia Is Required for Growth under Magnesium Limitation Conditions and Intracellular Survival in Macrophages [24].
  • We used Magnesium Green AM to measure Ca(2+) transients in Schaffer collateral presynaptic terminals simultaneously with postsynaptic field potentials (fEPSPs) to investigate the mechanism of neurosteroid enhancement of short-term synaptic facilitation [25].

Associations of magnesium with other chemical compounds


Gene context of magnesium

  • Magnesium ion requirements for yeast enolase activity [31].
  • Active hormonal vitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) was lower in the CF group ( P<0.0001), not explained by 25OHD or disease severity, as was serum magnesium ( P<0.0001) [32].
  • Magnesium ion does not enhance the ultraviolet inactivation of thymidylate kinase by 5-iodinated nucleoside analogs [33].
  • OBJECTIVE: Magnesium deficiency has been associated with insulin resistance (IR) and increased risk for type 2 diabetes in adults [34].
  • Results obtained agreed well with those by an atomic absorption procedure (x): SMAC magnesium - 0.971 x + 0.030 mmol/L (n = 58) [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of magnesium


  1. Long-term outcome after intravenous magnesium sulphate in suspected acute myocardial infarction: the second Leicester Intravenous Magnesium Intervention Trial (LIMIT-2). Woods, K.L., Fletcher, S. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Do women with pre-eclampsia, and their babies, benefit from magnesium sulphate? The Magpie Trial: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Altman, D., Carroli, G., Duley, L., Farrell, B., Moodley, J., Neilson, J., Smith, D. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Hibernation during hypoxia in cardiomyocytes. Role of mitochondria as the O2 sensor. Budinger, G.R., Duranteau, J., Chandel, N.S., Schumacker, P.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Magnesium prophylaxis for arrhythmias after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Shiga, T., Wajima, Z., Inoue, T., Ogawa, R. Am. J. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of intravenous magnesium sulfate in acute stroke. Muir, K.W., Lees, K.R. Stroke (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Magnesium for the treatment of nocturnal leg cramps: a crossover randomized trial. Frusso, R., Zárate, M., Augustovski, F., Rubinstein, A. The Journal of family practice. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Dementias: the role of magnesium deficiency and an hypothesis concerning the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Glick, J.L. Med. Hypotheses (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Magnesium as a neuroprotectant in cardiac surgery: a randomized clinical trial. Bhudia, S.K., Cosgrove, D.M., Naugle, R.I., Rajeswaran, J., Lam, B.K., Walton, E., Petrich, J., Palumbo, R.C., Gillinov, A.M., Apperson-Hansen, C., Blackstone, E.H. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Letter: Magnesium in heart muscle. Chipperfield, B., Chipperfield, J.R., Behr, G., Burton, P. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  10. Immune T lymphocyte to tumor cell adhesion. Magnesium sufficient, calcium insufficient. Martz, E. J. Cell Biol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Magnesium ion-dependent triple-helix structure formed by homopurine-homopyrimidine sequences in supercoiled plasmid DNA. Kohwi, Y., Kohwi-Shigematsu, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Knock-out of the Magnesium Protoporphyrin IX Methyltransferase Gene in Arabidopsis: EFFECTS ON CHLOROPLAST DEVELOPMENT AND ON CHLOROPLAST-TO-NUCLEUS SIGNALING. Pontier, D., Albrieux, C., Joyard, J., Lagrange, T., Block, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Magnesium ion-dependent activation of the RecA protein involves the C terminus. Lusetti, S.L., Shaw, J.J., Cox, M.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. If tocolytic magnesium sulfate is associated with excess total pediatric mortality, what is its impact? Mittendorf, R., Pryde, P., Khoshnood, B., Lee, K.S. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Facchinetti, F., Sances, G., Borella, P., Genazzani, A.R., Nappi, G. Headache. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of magnesium depletion and potassium depletion and chlorothiazide on intracellular pH in the rat, studied by 31P NMR. Adam, W.R., Craik, D.J., Kneen, M., Wellard, R.M. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Kinetics and Mechanism of Ketone Enolization Mediated by Magnesium Bis(hexamethyldisilazide). He, X., Morris, J.J., Noll, B.C., Brown, S.N., Henderson, K.W. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. RNA-ligant interactions. (I) Magnesium binding sites in yeast tRNAPhe. Holbrook, S.R., Sussman, J.L., Warrant, R.W., Church, G.M., Kim, S.H. Nucleic Acids Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Magnesium ion catalyzed P-N bond hydrolysis in imidazolide-activated nucleotides. Relevance to template-directed synthesis of polynucleotides. Kanavarioti, A., Bernasconi, C.F., Doodokyan, D.L., Alberas, D.J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Meal effect on magnesium bioavailability from mineral water in healthy women. Sabatier, M., Arnaud, M.J., Kastenmayer, P., Rytz, A., Barclay, D.V. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Low dietary magnesium increases supraventricular ectopy. Klevay, L.M., Milne, D.B. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Structural dynamics of bacterial ribosomes. V. Magnesium-dependent dissociation of tight couples into subunits: measurements of dissociation constants and exchange rates. Noll, M., Noll, H. J. Mol. Biol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. Magnesium ion-dependent contraction of skinned frog muscle fibers in calcium-free solution. Gulati, J. Biophys. J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. The mgtC Gene of Burkholderia cenocepacia Is Required for Growth under Magnesium Limitation Conditions and Intracellular Survival in Macrophages. Maloney, K.E., Valvano, M.A. Infect. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Neurosteroid-induced enhancement of short-term facilitation involves a component downstream from presynaptic calcium in hippocampal slices. Schiess, A.R., Scullin, C.S., Partridge, L.D. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on blood pressure, platelet aggregation and calcium handling in deoxycorticosterone acetate induced hypertension in rats. Kh, R., Khullar, M., Kashyap, M., Pandhi, P., Uppal, R. J. Hypertens. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Magnesium chloride slows gastric emptying, but does not affect digestive functions. Geboes, K.P., Maes, B., Luypaerts, A., Evenepoel, P., Rutgeerts, P., Ghoos, Y., Geypens, B. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Magnesium bistrifluoromethanesulfonimide as a new and efficient acylation catalyst. Chakraborti, A.K., Shivani, S. J. Org. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Magnesium sulfate attenuates peroxide-induced vasoconstriction in the human placenta. Walsh, S.W., Romney, A.D., Wang, Y., Walsh, M.D. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Effects of three different dose regimens of magnesium on propofol requirements, haemodynamic variables and postoperative pain relief in gynaecological surgery. Seyhan, T.O., Tugrul, M., Sungur, M.O., Kayacan, S., Telci, L., Pembeci, K., Akpir, K. British journal of anaesthesia. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Magnesium ion requirements for yeast enolase activity. Faller, L.D., Baroudy, B.M., Johnson, A.M., Ewall, R.X. Biochemistry (1977) [Pubmed]
  32. Abnormalities of the PTH-vitamin D axis and bone turnover markers in children, adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis: comparison with healthy controls. Greer, R.M., Buntain, H.M., Potter, J.M., Wainwright, C.E., Wong, J.C., O'Rourke, P.K., Francis, P.W., Bell, S.C., Batch, J.A. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Photochemical studies and ultraviolet sensitization of Escherichia coli thymidylate kinase by various halogenated substrate analogs. Chen, M.S., Chang, P.K., Prusoff, W.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  34. Magnesium deficiency is associated with insulin resistance in obese children. Huerta, M.G., Roemmich, J.N., Kington, M.L., Bovbjerg, V.E., Weltman, A.L., Holmes, V.F., Patrie, J.T., Rogol, A.D., Nadler, J.L. Diabetes Care (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Measurement of magnesium by continuous-flow colorimetry. Fowler, R.T., Abernethy, M.H., Walmsley, T.A., Taylor, H.W. Clin. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  36. Effect of magnesium on restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty: a clinical and angiographic evaluation in a randomized patient population. A pilot study. The Ichilov Magnesium Study Group. Roth, A., Eshchar, Y., Keren, G., Kerbel, S., Harsat, A., Villa, Y., Laniado, S., Miller, H.I. Eur. Heart J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  37. Nitric oxide as a mediator of the laxative action of magnesium sulphate. Izzo, A.A., Gaginella, T.S., Mascolo, N., Capasso, F. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. Long-term magnesium sulfate treatment as protection against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in seven-day-old rats. Sameshima, H., Ikenoue, T. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Magnesium sulfate potentiates morphine antinociception at the spinal level. Kroin, J.S., McCarthy, R.J., Von Roenn, N., Schwab, B., Tuman, K.J., Ivankovich, A.D. Anesth. Analg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  40. Magnesium sulfate tocolysis and risk of neonatal death. Grether, J.K., Hoogstrate, J., Selvin, S., Nelson, K.B. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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