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Chemical Compound Review

Radon-220     radon

Synonyms: CHEBI:33491, AC1L1XQA, LS-143269, 220Rn, (220)Rn, ...
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Disease relevance of radon

  • BACKGROUND: Radon at sufficiently high concentrations is known to cause lung cancer among underground miners and in experimental laboratory animals [1].
  • A second Radon line (R3) contained neo driven by the CaMV 35S promoter and gusA driven by a promoter of the rice tungro bacilliform virus [2].
  • Accurate relativistic adapted Gaussian basis sets for Cesium through Radon without variational prolapse and to be used with both uniform sphere and Gaussian nucleus models [3].
  • In a subgroup of 592 men who worked for at least one year in selected jobs (indicative of highest exposure to thorium and thoron) that was followed up more intensively, the SMR for pancreatic cancer was significantly elevated (i.e. 4.13; 95% confidence limits = 1.34 and 9.63) [4].

High impact information on radon


Biological context of radon

  • The calculation of the activity concentration standards was performed for standard conditions obtained by earlier studies on exhalation of Radon-222 and Radon-220 from building materials [9].
  • Indoor radon/thoron levels and inhalation doses to some populations in Himachal Pradesh, India [10].
  • It is concluded that the ICRP recommendations on action levels of indoor exposures to radon and thoron and daughter nuclides suggest a stricter dose limitation for occupational exposures than for exposure of the population to enhanced natural radiation [11].
  • The effects of generation and extinction of the action potentials at the fiber end plate and at the tendons are included by modeling the source current, without any approximation of its shape, as a function of space and time and by using again the Radon transform [12].
  • The University of Iowa, in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency's State Radon Survey Assistance Program, performed a 222Rn screening survey of 582 rural households in the winter of 1989 [13].

Anatomical context of radon

  • 3. Radon exposure to 170 WLM resulted in the same frequency of micronuclei in deep lung epithelial cells as produced by one alpha hit/cell nucleus [14].
  • This work shows that the dose to red bone marrow from radon and thoron is significant, and that the possibility of leukaemia induced by these radiation sources warrants further investigation [15].
  • The Radon transform is then used to estimate the location and orientation of the line joining the ridge point clusters appearing on the boundary of the vertebra body [16].
  • Inducible transgene expression that uses green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) as a reporter gene has been investigated in transgenic cell lines of cotton (COT; Gossypium hirsutum L.), Fraser fir [FRA; Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir], Nordmann fir (NOR; Abies nordmanniana Lk.), and rice (RIC; Oryza sativa L. cv. Radon) [17].

Associations of radon with other chemical compounds

  • The Nuclear Engineering Section of the National Technical University of Athens undertook the organisation of a European building material radon exhalation rate intercomparison exercise in the framework of the European Research into Radon In Construction Concerted Action (ERRICCA) [18].
  • Assessment also included the unattached fractions of the decay products, the thoron working levels and the aerodynamic particle size distribution of airborne thorium [19].
  • Abu-Tartor mine is one of the biggest underground phosphate mines in Egypt. Airborne radioactivity, radon ((222)Rn) and its short-lived decay products (progenies) and thoron ((220)Rn), were measured in selected locations along the mine [20].
  • This paper presents the results of external gamma measurements, estimation of airborne radioactivity in zircon process locations and radon and thoron in the occupational environment of two mineral separation plants in India. Analyses of the solid wastes and liquid effluent generated and resultant environmental impacts are indicated [21].
  • This paper describes a practical calibration system and the actual calibration verification data obtained at different flow rates, for E-PERM passive radon monitors, Femto-Tech and Alpha Guard Continuous Radon Monitors [22].

Gene context of radon

  • Passive measurement of radon and thoron using TLD or SSNTD on electrets [23].
  • A single company, which abided by the Code of Practice of the Radon Council of Great Britain, carried out the remediation [24].
  • The Environmental Measurements Laboratory hosted the Sixth International Radon Metrology Programme Intercomparison Test and Workshop (IRMP6) from 12-15 June 1995 [25].
  • ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Radon is a ubiquitous noble gas in the environment and a primary source of harmful radiation exposure for humans; it decays in a cascade of daughters (RAD) by releasing the cell damaging high energy alpha particles [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of radon

  • Image interpolation techniques often are required in medical imaging for image generation (e.g., discrete back projection for inverse Radon transform) and processing such as compression or resampling [27].
  • Inverting the exponential Radon transform has a potential use for SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging in cases where a uniform attenuation can be approximated, such as in brain and abdominal imaging [28].
  • Two optical measurement methods that acquire the Radon transform of the three-dimensional refractive index perturbation are briefly reviewed [29].
  • Thoron and radon progeny were measured by filter grab sampling with ZnS scintillation counting [30].
  • Therefore, feasibility studies for assessing internal exposure to 233U have been conducted using three methods: urine bioassay, in vivo counting and measurement of thoron gas in the exhaled breath of a worker [31].


  1. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer among nonsmoking women. Alavanja, M.C., Brownson, R.C., Lubin, J.H., Berger, E., Chang, J., Boice, J.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Inheritance of gusA and neo genes in transgenic rice. Peng, J., Wen, F., Lister, R.L., Hodges, T.K. Plant Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Accurate relativistic adapted Gaussian basis sets for Cesium through Radon without variational prolapse and to be used with both uniform sphere and Gaussian nucleus models. Haiduke, R.L., Da Silva, A.B. Journal of computational chemistry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Mortality among male workers at a thorium-processing plant. Polednak, A.P., Stehney, A.F., Lucas, H.F. Health physics. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Lung cancer. Radon risk reassessed. Peto, J., Darby, S. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Epidemiology. Radon and the risks of cancer. Peto, J. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Use of bar as a selectable marker gene and for the production of herbicide-resistant rice plants from protoplasts. Rathore, K.S., Chowdhury, V.K., Hodges, T.K. Plant Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Do low dose-rate bystander effects influence domestic radon risks? Brenner, D.J., Sachs, R.K. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Discussing possible standards of natural radioactivity in building materials. Keller, G., Folkerts, K.H., Muth, H. Radiation and environmental biophysics. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Indoor radon/thoron levels and inhalation doses to some populations in Himachal Pradesh, India. Virk, H.S., Sharma, N. Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. The use of reference levels in the dose limitation procedure. Leenhouts, H.P., Stoutjesdijk, J.F. Sci. Total Environ. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. A novel approach for precise simulation of the EMG signal detected by surface electrodes. Farina, D., Merletti, R. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Factors associated with elevated 222Rn levels in Iowa. Field, R.W., Kross, B.C., Weih, L.M., Vust, L.J., Nicholson, H.F. Health physics. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Induction of micronuclei in respiratory tract following radon inhalation. Brooks, A.L., Bao, S., Harwood, P.W., Wood, B.H., Chrisler, W.B., Khan, M.A., Gies, R.A., Cross, F.T. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Dose to red bone marrow from natural radon and thoron exposure. Richardson, R.B., Eatough, J.P., Henshaw, D.L. The British journal of radiology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Automatic estimation of orientation and position of spine in digitized X-rays using mathematical morphology. Kumar, V.P., Thomas, T. Journal of digital imaging : the official journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Dexamethasone-inducible green fluorescent protein gene expression in transgenic plant cells. Tang, W., Collver, H., Kinken, K. Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Building materials radon exhalation rate: ERRICCA intercomparison exercise results. Petropoulos, N.P., Anagnostakis, M.J., Simopoulos, S.E. Sci. Total Environ. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Assessment of airborne hazards in the thorium processing industry. Kotrappa, P., Bhanti, D.P., Menon, V.B., Dhandayutham, R., Gohel, C.O., Nambiar, P.P. American Industrial Hygiene Association journal. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Occupational exposure of phosphate mine workers: airborne radioactivity measurements and dose assessment. Khater, A.E., Hussein, M.A., Hussein, M.I. Journal of environmental radioactivity. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Natural radionuclides in zircon and related radiological impacts in mineral separation plants. Haridasan, P.P., Pillai, P.M., Khan, A.H., Puranik, V.D. Radiation protection dosimetry (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Radon monitor calibration using NIST radon emanation standards: steady flow method. Kotrappa, P., Stieff, L.R., Volkovitsky, P. Radiation protection dosimetry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Passive measurement of radon and thoron using TLD or SSNTD on electrets. Kotrappa, P., Dua, S.K., Pimpale, N.S., Gupta, P.C., Nambi, K.S., Bhagwat, A.M., Soman, S.D. Health physics. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. A critical comparison of the cost-effectiveness of domestic radon remediation programmes in three counties of England. Coskeran, T., Denman, A.R., Phillips, P.S., Gillmore, G.K. Journal of environmental radioactivity. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. An international intercomparison of soil gas radon and radon exhalation measurements. Hutter, A.R., Knutson, E.O. Health physics. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Natural distribution of environmental radon daughters in the different brain areas of an Alzheimer Disease victim. Momcilovi??, B., Lykken, G.I., Cooley, M. Molecular neurodegeneration [electronic resource]. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Survey: interpolation methods in medical image processing. Lehmann, T.M., Gönner, C., Spitzer, K. IEEE transactions on medical imaging. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. An inversion formula for the exponential radon transform in spatial domain with variable focal-length fan-beam collimation geometry. Wen, J., Liang, Z. Medical physics. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Optical measurement of ultrasonic Poynting and velocity vector fields. Pitts, T.A., Greenleaf, J.F. IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Influence of air flow on the behavior of thoron and its progeny in a traditional Japanese house. Ma, J., Yonehara, H., Aoyama, T., Doi, M., Kobayashi, S., Sakanoue, M. Health physics. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Feasibility studies for assessing internal exposure to 233U. Mehta, D.J., Sharma, R.C., Ramanujam, A., Haridasan, T.K., Sawant, P.D., Rathinam, M. Radiation protection dosimetry. (2003) [Pubmed]
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