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Chemical Compound Review

Thorium-230     thorium

Synonyms: AC1L1VT1, 14269-63-7, Thorium, isotope of mass 230
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Disease relevance of thorium


Psychiatry related information on thorium

  • Aflatoxin exposure, cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, low vegetable intake, inorganic arsenic ingestion, radioactive thorium dioxide exposure, iron overload and the use of oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids have been documented as HCC risk factors [6].

High impact information on thorium


Chemical compound and disease context of thorium


Biological context of thorium

  • Given the attenuation coefficient of thorium and the thorium concentrations reported for liver, spleen and vertebral bodies, it is likely that thorium was visualized in the liver and spleen and that it caused spurious elevation in her DXA bone mineral content values [14].
  • Structures of dimeric hydrolysis products of thorium [15].
  • The results show that the levels of Th are more than two orders of magnitude lower than the maximum permissible concentration for occupational exposure to natural 232Th, suggesting that the long-term accumulation of RE in the lungs played a role in the pathogenesis of the observed pulmonary fibrosis of the worker [16].
  • These results indicate that the transplacental transmission of T. cruzi was dependent on two restrictions: pathogenicity of the strain of T. cruzi, and blockade of phagocytic activity by thorium dioxide, suggesting that transplacental transmission of T. cruzi is related to interference with the phagocytic activity of the placenta [17].
  • RESULTS: Except for thorium, induction of cell death was observed for all the elements studied and the death mechanism involved was apoptosis [18].

Anatomical context of thorium

  • The morphological features of pinched-off presynaptic nerve terminals (synaptosomes) from rat brain were examined with electron microscope techniques; in many experiments, an extracellular marked (horseradish peroxidase or colloidal thorium dioxide) was included in the incubation media [19].
  • Electron-microscopic examination showed that some endothelial cells became permeable to tracers (thorium dioxide and horseradish peroxidase); platelets adhered to the exposed internal elastic membrane [20].
  • Typical thorium densities were demonstrated at CT in the peripelvicalyceal area as well as in retroperitoneal lymph nodes [5].
  • ThO2-labeled phagosomal membranes enclosing rickettsiae were observed and short membrane fragments still labeled with this tracer were found in the vicinity of rickettsiae in the cytoplasmic matrix of PMNs [12].
  • 5. To explore the possibility that after uptake C. burnetii was able to delay phagolysosomal fusion, we used thorium dioxide and acid phosphatase to label phagolysosomes during infection of J774A.1 cells [21].

Associations of thorium with other chemical compounds


Gene context of thorium

  • The intact rickettsiae were singly and selectively phagocytized in tightly enclosed phagosomal membranes which usually excluded the tracers, except when ThO2 or ferritin was used [12].
  • Four primary cancers found at autopsy of a patient who received the thorium-based contrast agent Thorotrast 50 years ago and who was healthy up until a few months before his death from liver failure were analyzed for p53 mutations [26].
  • Their different bioactivity for decorporation of (234)Th was consistent with their competitive ability to mobilize thorium with BSA [27].
  • In olfactory neurons, ultrastructural tracers (0.08% horseradish peroxidase, thorium dioxide, ferritin) are endocytosed by olfactory receptor endings and transported to the cell body, where their movement is halted in lysosomes [28].
  • Two thorium dioxide-induced murine hemangioendotheliomas, 42021 TCT and 44347 TST, were grown subcutaneously (for up to 22 and 15 passages respectively) or intracranially (single passage) and were adapted to culture as a monolayer and, in a limited fashion, in an organ culture system or in rotary suspension [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of thorium


  1. Thorium dioxide and liver cancer. Farid, I. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Erythroleukemia (di Guglielmo's disease). Occurrence 28 years after thorium administration. Waddell, C.C., Brown, J.A., Rueb, D.L. JAMA (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. p53 mutations in tumor and non-tumor tissues of thorotrast recipients: a model for cellular selection during radiation carcinogenesis in the liver. Iwamoto, K.S., Fujii, S., Kurata, A., Suzuki, M., Hayashi, T., Ohtsuki, Y., Okada, Y., Narita, M., Takahashi, M., Hosobe, S., Doishita, K., Manabe, T., Hata, S., Murakami, I., Hata, S., Itoyama, S., Akatsuka, S., Ohara, N., Iwasaki, K., Akabane, H., Fujihara, M., Seyama, T., Mori, T. Carcinogenesis (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. A geochemical basis for endomyocardial fibrosis. Valiathan, M.S., Kartha, C.C., Panday, V.K., Dang, H.S., Sunta, C.M. Cardiovasc. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Renal thorium deposition associated with transitional cell carcinoma: radiologic demonstration in two patients. Oyen, R.H., Gielen, J.L., Van Poppel, H.P., Verbeken, E.K., Van Damme, B.J., Baert, L.V., Baert, A.L. Radiology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma. Chen, C.J., Yu, M.W., Liaw, Y.F. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. The Legionnaires' disease bacterium (Legionella pneumophila) inhibits phagosome-lysosome fusion in human monocytes. Horwitz, M.A. J. Exp. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of a novel cell type in peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. IV. Identification and distribution in mouse spleen. Steinman, R.M., Adams, J.C., Cohn, Z.A. J. Exp. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Angiosarcoma of the liver: an epidemiologic survey. Brady, J., Liberatore, F., Harper, P., Greenwald, P., Burnett, W., Davies, J.N., Bishop, M., Polan, A., Vianna, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. Phagosome-lysosome fusion. Characterization of intracellular membrane fusion in mouse macrophages. Kielian, M.C., Cohn, Z.A. J. Cell Biol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of colchicine on endocytosis and cellular inactivation of horseradish peroxidase in cultured chondrocytes. Piasek, A., Thyberg, J. J. Cell Biol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Localization of electron-dense tracers during entry of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi into polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Rikihisa, Y., Ito, S. Infect. Immun. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Splenic angiosarcoma following chemotherapy for follicular lymphoma. Zwi, L.J., Evans, D.J., Wechsler, A.L., Catovsky, D. Hum. Pathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Spurious dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry images in a patient exposed to the contrast agent Thorotrast. Stern, D., Zamenhof, R., Dawson-Hughes, B. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Structures of dimeric hydrolysis products of thorium. Wilson, R.E., Skanthakumar, S., Sigmon, G., Burns, P.C., Soderholm, L. Inorganic chemistry (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Human exposure to heavy metals. Rare earth pneumoconiosis in occupational workers. Vocaturo, G., Colombo, F., Zanoni, M., Rodi, F., Sabbioni, E., Pietra, R. Chest (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Transplacental transmission and fetal parasitosis of Trypanosoma cruzi in outbred white Swiss mice. Delgado, M.A., Santos-Buch, C.A. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Chemical toxicity of some actinides and lanthanides towards alveolar macrophages: an in vitro study. Lizon, C., Fritsch, P. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Retrieval and recycling of synaptic vesicle membrane in pinched-off nerve terminals (synaptosomes). Fried, R.C., Blaustein, M.P. J. Cell Biol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Hydrodynamic injury of the endothelium in acute aortic stenosis. Joris, I., Zand, T., Majno, G. Am. J. Pathol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Coxiella burnetii exhibits morphological change and delays phagolysosomal fusion after internalization by J774A.1 cells. Howe, D., Mallavia, L.P. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Determination of thorium and uranium in ultrapure lead by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Grinberg, P., Willie, S., Sturgeon, R.E. Anal. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. The coating of mouse myocardial cells. A cytochemical electron microscopical study. Gros, D., Challice, C.E. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  24. Separation and determination of rare earth elements by Dowex 2-X8 resin using sodium trimetaphosphate as elution agent. Sungur, S.K., Akseli, A. Journal of chromatography. A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Microanalytical study of thorium 232 deposits in bone marrow and liver. Hallegot, P., Galle, P. Radiation and environmental biophysics. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Multiple, unique, and common p53 mutations in a thorotrast recipient with four primary cancers. Iwamoto, K.S., Mizuno, T., Kurata, A., Masuzawa, M., Mori, T., Seyama, T. Hum. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Decorporating efficacy of catecholaminocarboxylate chelating agents for thorium-234 and protective effects on associated radiation injury. Chen, H., Luo, M., Sun, M., Hu, Y., Wang, Y., Jin, M., Cheng, W. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Endocytic pathways in the olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia of the mouse: ultrastructure and uptake of tracers. Bannister, L.H., Dodson, H.C. Microsc. Res. Tech. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. The growth of two murine hemangioendotheliomas intracranially, subcutaneously, and in culture, and their comparison with human cerebellar hemangioblastomas: morphological and immunohistochemical studies. Vinores, S.A., Herman, M.M., Perentes, E., Nakagawa, Y., Thomas, C.B., Innes, D.J., Rubinstein, L.J. Acta Neuropathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Thorium complexation by hydroxamate siderophores in perturbed multicomponent systems using flow injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Keith-Roach, M.J., Buratti, M.V., Worsfold, P.J. Anal. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Mesangial fenestrations, sieving, filtration, and flow. Latta, H., Fligiel, S. Lab. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Redistribution of thorotrast into a liver allograft several years following transplantation: a case report. Krasinskas, A.M., Minda, J., Saul, S.H., Shaked, A., Furth, E.E. Mod. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Systemic deposits of thorium in thorotrast patients with particular reference to sites of minor storage. Ishikawa, Y., Mori, T., Kato, Y., Machinami, R., Priest, N.D., Kitagawa, T. Radiat. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  34. XAFS investigation of the structure of aqueous thorium(IV) species, colloids, and solid thorium(IV) oxide/hydroxide. Rothe, J., Denecke, M.A., Neck, V., Müller, R., Kim, J.I. Inorganic chemistry. (2002) [Pubmed]
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