The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Bystander Effect

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Bystander Effect


Psychiatry related information on Bystander Effect


High impact information on Bystander Effect


Chemical compound and disease context of Bystander Effect


Biological context of Bystander Effect

  • The mechanism of this "bystander effect" on HSV-TK-negative cells appeared to be related to the process of apoptotic cell death when HSV-TK-positive cells were exposed to GCV [17].
  • These findings may explain, in part, the bystander effect seen with p53 tumor suppressor gene therapy [18].
  • Further, we show that the bystander effect also depends on which connexin is expressed; reported disparities regarding the extent of GCV-mediated cellular apoptosis are likely due both to the degree of functional coupling and the type of connexin expressed [19].
  • These results indicate that vector cytotoxicity can limit the efficacy of HSV-tk/GCV treatment in vivo, which may be due to premature termination of tk gene expression with attendant abortion of the bystander effect [20].
  • These results identify TIMP-3 as a novel type of secreted tumor suppressor, which has antiinvasive, antiangiogenic, and proapoptotic effects in vivo, and which displays a potent bystander effect validating further exploration of its applicability in human cancer gene therapy [21].

Anatomical context of Bystander Effect


Associations of Bystander Effect with chemical compounds


Gene context of Bystander Effect

  • Mechanism of radiation-induced bystander effect: role of the cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathway [25].
  • Like the increased intracellular ROS bystander effect, this "decreased TP53/CDKN1A response" can be mimicked in otherwise untreated cells by the addition of low concentrations of TGF-beta1 [28].
  • However, p53 protein was expressed in only a fraction of the tumor cells, suggesting a role for bystander effects in the efficacy of p53 gene therapy [29].
  • VEGF and tumor vascularization were identified as novel targets for sst2-mediated antitumoral bystander effect. sst3 somatostatin receptor was upregulated in sst2-transfected tumors [30].
  • In mixing experiments, a local bystander effect was observed: mixed tumors containing a ratio of sst2-expressing cells to control cells of 25:75, 50:50, and 75:25 grew with a time delay of 31, 44, and 50 days, respectively, when compared with control tumors derived from control cells [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Bystander Effect


  1. Autoreactive CD4+ T cells protect from autoimmune diabetes via bystander suppression using the IL-4/Stat6 pathway. Homann, D., Holz, A., Bot, A., Coon, B., Wolfe, T., Petersen, J., Dyrberg, T.P., Grusby, M.J., von Herrath, M.G. Immunity (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Suicide gene therapy for plasma cell tumors. Dilber, M.S., Abedi, M.R., Björkstrand, B., Christensson, B., Gahrton, G., Xanthopoulos, K.G., Smith, C.I. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Quantitation of bystander effects in nitroreductase suicide gene therapy using three-dimensional cell cultures. Wilson, W.R., Pullen, S.M., Hogg, A., Helsby, N.A., Hicks, K.O., Denny, W.A. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. A tumor suppressor gene, Cx26, also mediates the bystander effect in HeLa cells. Mesnil, M., Piccoli, C., Yamasaki, H. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Rudimentary TCR signaling triggers default IL-10 secretion by human Th1 cells. Burrows, G.G., Chou, Y.K., Wang, C., Chang, J.W., Finn, T.P., Culbertson, N.E., Kim, J., Bourdette, D.N., Lewinsohn, D.A., Lewinsohn, D.M., Ikeda, M., Yoshioka, T., Allen, C.N., Offner, H., Vandenbark, A.A. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Recycling of vitamin C by a bystander effect. Nualart, F.J., Rivas, C.I., Montecinos, V.P., Godoy, A.S., Guaiquil, V.H., Golde, D.W., Vera, J.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Oral tolerance: immunologic mechanisms and treatment of animal and human organ-specific autoimmune diseases by oral administration of autoantigens. Weiner, H.L., Friedman, A., Miller, A., Khoury, S.J., al-Sabbagh, A., Santos, L., Sayegh, M., Nussenblatt, R.B., Trentham, D.E., Hafler, D.A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Induction of mucosal tolerance in Peyer's patch-deficient, ligated small bowel loops. Kraus, T.A., Brimnes, J., Muong, C., Liu, J.H., Moran, T.M., Tappenden, K.A., Boros, P., Mayer, L. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Re: Cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine-based vaccination against liver tumors: evidence of distant bystander effect. Pierrefite-Carle, V., Gavelli, A., Brossette, N., Baqué, P., Benchimol, D., Bourgeon, A., Staccini, P., Rossi, B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine-based vaccination against liver tumors: evidence of distant bystander effect. Pierrefite-Carle, V., Baqué, P., Gavelli, A., Mala, M., Chazal, M., Gugenheim, J., Bourgeon, A., Milano, G., Staccini, P., Rossi, B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Folylpolyglutamyl synthetase gene transfer and glioma antifolate sensitivity in culture and in vivo. Aghi, M., Kramm, C.M., Breakefield, X.O. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. In vitro and in vivo effects of retrovirus-mediated transfer of the connexin 43 gene in malignant gliomas: consequences for HSVtk/GCV anticancer gene therapy. Cirenei, N., Colombo, B.M., Mesnil, M., Benedetti, S., Yamasaki, H., Finocchiaro, G. Gene Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Bystander effects of cancer cell lines transduced with the multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase of Drosophila melanogaster and synergistic enhancement by hydroxyurea. Zheng, X., Johansson, M., Karlsson, A. Mol. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Pharmacological modulation of the bystander effect in the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir gene therapy system: effects of dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid, and cytosine arabinoside. Robe, P.A., Princen, F., Martin, D., Malgrange, B., Stevenaert, A., Moonen, G., Gielen, J., Merville, M., Bours, V. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Glatiramer acetate-reactive peripheral blood mononuclear cells respond to multiple myelin antigens with a Th2-biased phenotype. Dhib-Jalbut, S., Chen, M., Said, A., Zhan, M., Johnson, K.P., Martin, R. J. Neuroimmunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. In vitro exposure to highly cytopathic HIV-1 X4 strains increases expression of mucosa-associated integrins on CD4(+) T cells. Cummins, J.E., Bunn, W.J., Hall, S.D., Donze, H.H., Mestecky, J., Jackson, S. Virology (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. The "bystander effect": tumor regression when a fraction of the tumor mass is genetically modified. Freeman, S.M., Abboud, C.N., Whartenby, K.A., Packman, C.H., Koeplin, D.S., Moolten, F.L., Abraham, G.N. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Adenovirus-mediated wild-type p53 gene transfer down-regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression and inhibits angiogenesis in human colon cancer. Bouvet, M., Ellis, L.M., Nishizaki, M., Fujiwara, T., Liu, W., Bucana, C.D., Fang, B., Lee, J.J., Roth, J.A. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Gap junctions: the "kiss of death" and the "kiss of life". Andrade-Rozental, A.F., Rozental, R., Hopperstad, M.G., Wu, J.K., Vrionis, F.D., Spray, D.C. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. HSV vector cytotoxicity is inversely correlated with effective TK/GCV suicide gene therapy of rat gliosarcoma. Moriuchi, S., Krisky, D.M., Marconi, P.C., Tamura, M., Shimizu, K., Yoshimine, T., Cohen, J.B., Glorioso, J.C. Gene Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Antitumor activity and bystander effect of adenovirally delivered tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3. Ahonen, M., Ala-Aho, R., Baker, A.H., George, S.J., Grénman, R., Saarialho-Kere, U., Kähäri, V.M. Mol. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Gap junctions promote the bystander effect of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase in vivo. Dilber, M.S., Abedi, M.R., Christensson, B., Björkstrand, B., Kidder, G.M., Naus, C.C., Gahrton, G., Smith, C.I. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Essential requirement of I-A region-identical host bone marrow or bone marrow-derived cells for tumor neutralization by primed L3T4+ T cells. Ozawa, H., Iwaguchi, T., Kataoka, T. J. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Differential ganciclovir-mediated cell killing by glutamine 125 mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase. Drake, R.R., Wilbert, T.N., Hinds, T.A., Gilbert, K.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Mechanism of radiation-induced bystander effect: role of the cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathway. Zhou, H., Ivanov, V.N., Gillespie, J., Geard, C.R., Amundson, S.A., Brenner, D.J., Yu, Z., Lieberman, H.B., Hei, T.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Adenovirus vector-based purging of multiple myeloma cells. Teoh, G., Chen, L., Urashima, M., Tai, Y.T., Celi, L.A., Chen, D., Chauhan, D., Ogata, A., Finberg, R.W., Webb, I.J., Kufe, D.W., Anderson, K.C. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Ionizing radiation induces DNA double-strand breaks in bystander primary human fibroblasts. Sokolov, M.V., Smilenov, L.B., Hall, E.J., Panyutin, I.G., Bonner, W.M., Sedelnikova, O.A. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Factors underlying the cell growth-related bystander responses to alpha particles. Iyer, R., Lehnert, B.E., Svensson, R. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. p53 and PTEN/MMAC1/TEP1 gene therapy of human prostate PC-3 carcinoma xenograft, using transferrin-facilitated lipofection gene delivery strategy. Seki, M., Iwakawa, J., Cheng, H., Cheng, P.W. Hum. Gene Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Characterization of the bystander effect of somatostatin receptor sst2 after in vivo gene transfer into human pancreatic cancer cells. Carrere, N., Vernejoul, F., Souque, A., Asnacios, A., Vaysse, N., Pradayrol, L., Susini, C., Buscail, L., Cordelier, P. Hum. Gene Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Gene therapy for pancreatic carcinoma: local and distant antitumor effects after somatostatin receptor sst2 gene transfer. Rochaix, P., Delesque, N., Estève, J.P., Saint-Laurent, N., Voight, J.J., Vaysse, N., Susini, C., Buscail, L. Hum. Gene Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Cyclophosphamide induces type I interferon and augments the number of CD44(hi) T lymphocytes in mice: implications for strategies of chemoimmunotherapy of cancer. Schiavoni, G., Mattei, F., Di Pucchio, T., Santini, S.M., Bracci, L., Belardelli, F., Proietti, E. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Bystander effect in herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir cancer gene therapy: role of gap-junctional intercellular communication. Mesnil, M., Yamasaki, H. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Contribution of CD95 ligand-induced neutrophil infiltration to the bystander effect in p53 gene therapy for human cancer. Waku, T., Fujiwara, T., Shao, J., Itoshima, T., Murakami, T., Kataoka, M., Gomi, S., Roth, J.A., Tanaka, N. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Gene therapy against an experimental glioma using adeno-associated virus vectors. Okada, H., Miyamura, K., Itoh, T., Hagiwara, M., Wakabayashi, T., Mizuno, M., Colosi, P., Kurtzman, G., Yoshida, J. Gene Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Expression of Escherichia coli B nitroreductase in established human tumor xenografts in mice results in potent antitumoral and bystander effects upon systemic administration of the prodrug CB1954. Djeha, A.H., Hulme, A., Dexter, M.T., Mountain, A., Young, L.S., Searle, P.F., Kerr, D.J., Wrighton, C.J. Cancer Gene Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities