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Chemical Compound Review

Thorium X     radium

Synonyms: RADIUM-224, AC1O3HAP, C16455, 224Ra, 13233-32-4, ...
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Disease relevance of radium


High impact information on radium

  • The American Radium Society. Radiation oncology in the 3rd millennium [6].
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We analyzed the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and survival records of 1571 men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy monotherapy at the former Queensland Radium Institute between 1990 and 1997 [7].
  • Treatment and outcome of patients with extragonadal germ cell tumours--the Norwegian Radium Hospital's experience 1979-94 [8].
  • Data from the Norwegian Radium Hospital showed that the majority of borderline tumors have DNA diploid tumors and good prognosis, DNA aneuploidy indicates high risk [9].
  • Information about occurrence of testicular cancer (TC) in relatives of TC patients has been collected using questionnaires from 797 out of 922 consecutive Norwegian and 178 out of 237 Swedish patients with TC seen at the Norwegian Radium Hospital and the University Hospital Lund in Sweden during 1981-91 [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of radium


Biological context of radium

  • The Public Health Response to Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation: a Workshop. Introduction [13].
  • Harrison S. Martland, MD. The Radium watch-dial workers and the evolution of industrial medicine [14].
  • A total of 1002 patients with cancer of the oesophagus seen at the Finsen Institute, Copenhagen, Radium Centre and/or Department of Surgery, during the 25-year period ending 31.12.1969, were analysed with a view to sex, age, localization of tumour, histology, and survival [15].
  • The Norwegian Radium Hospital provides clinical genetics services for families at high risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer [16].
  • At the Center for Human Radiobiology (Argonne National Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, New Jersey Radium Research Project) measurements were made of radium body content in 2259 occupationally or iatrogenically exposed persons [17].

Anatomical context of radium

  • In a retrospective analysis of 1,390 consecutive patients with carcinoma of the cervix treated by high dose radiation therapy alone at the Queensland Radium Institute, we report a quantitative relationship between the early and late gastrointestinal complications arising from such treatment [18].
  • Symptoms, delay in diagnosis, tumour stage and the clinical value of a follow-up programme were studied in 107 patients admitted to the Norwegian Radium Hospital for anal canal carcinoma [19].
  • PURPOSE: A retrospective review of carcinomas of the nasal vestibule seen at the Queensland Radium Institute over a 30-year period was undertaken [20].
  • Forty patients, 10 women and 30 men, median age 41.5 years (range 16-61) with PTCL were treated with HDT and autologous stem cell support at The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo, Norway and The University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden, between February 1990 and September 1999 [21].
  • One hundred and seventy-five patients with endometrial cancer, seen in the Norwegian Radium Hospital from 1960 to 1977, had tumor extension outside the uterus but not outside the true pelvis [22].

Associations of radium with other chemical compounds


Gene context of radium

  • STUDY DESIGN: Tumor specimens from 185 patients with stage III ovarian cancer, treated at the Department of Gynecologic Oncology of the Norwegian Radium Hospital, were examined immunohistochemically for overexpression of EGFR [26].
  • A revision of bone tumor pathology in patients treated with multiple injections of the short-lived alpha-particle emitter radium-224, predominantly for tuberculosis and ankylosing spondylitis, revealed an unexpectedly high proportion of bone sarcomas of the fibrous connective tissue type [27].
  • Stage IB carcinoma of the cervix, the Norwegian Radium Hospital: results and complications. III. Urinary and gastrointestinal complications [28].
  • METHODS: In total, 220 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and bilateral lymphadenectomy at the Norwegian Radium Hospital for stage IB SCC between 1987 and 1993 were studied [29].
  • From 1971 to 1985 a total of 122 patients with non-distant metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated at the Norwegian Radium Hospital with radiation doses that increased from 50 Gy (at 2 Gy/fractions) to 70 Gy (at 2 Gy/fractions) during the treatment period [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of radium

  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The 99 women included in the study were treated between 1975 and 1992 at the Norwegian Radium Hospital. All patients received radiotherapy and 67 of the women also received chemotherapy [31].
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-nine patients aged 15-70 years admitted to the Norwegian Radium Hospital in the period 1982-2001 with a diagnosis of BL/BLL on histological review and who were given chemotherapy with curative intent are included in this analysis [4].
  • CONCLUSION: The incidence of side effects after brachytherapy at the Norwegian Radium Hospital seems to have been somewhat higher in the period under investigation than at other institutions [32].
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: This descriptive cross-sectional study comprises 154 patients who had undergone definitive radiotherapy (RAD) and 108 patients with radical prostatectomy (PRECT) at the Norwegian Radium Hospital during 1987-1995 [33].
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of semen cryopreservation (SCP) in the fertility saving management of testicular cancer (TC) patients, treated at the Norwegian Radium Hospital between 1983 and 2002 [34].


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  2. Time course of C-type retrovirus expression in mice submitted to osteosarcomagenic doses of 224radium. Erfle, V., Hehlmann, R., Schetters, H., Meier, A., Luz, A. Int. J. Cancer (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Second non-germ cell malignancies after radiotherapy of testicular cancer with or without chemotherapy. Fosså, S.D., Langmark, F., Aass, N., Andersen, A., Lothe, R., Børresen, A.L. Br. J. Cancer (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Treatment of Burkitt's/Burkitt-like lymphoma in adolescents and adults: a 20-year experience from the Norwegian Radium Hospital with the use of three successive regimens. Smeland, S., Blystad, A.K., Kvaløy, S.O., Ikonomou, I.M., Delabie, J., Kvalheim, G., Hammerstrøm, J., Lauritzsen, G.F., Holte, H. Ann. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Preoperative radiation therapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue at the Norwegian Radium Hospital. Vermund, H., Brennhovd, I.O., Kaalhus, O., Poppe, E. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. The American Radium Society. Radiation oncology in the 3rd millennium. Brady, L.W., Levitt, S.H. Radiology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Both pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level and posttreatment biochemical failure are independent predictors of overall survival after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Williams, S.G., Duchesne, G.M., Millar, J.L., Pratt, G.R. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Treatment and outcome of patients with extragonadal germ cell tumours--the Norwegian Radium Hospital's experience 1979-94. Dueland, S., Stenwig, A.E., Heilo, A., Høie, J., Ous, S., Fosså, S.D. Br. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Management of borderline tumors of the ovary: state of the art. Tropé, C., Kaern, J. Semin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Familial testicular cancer in Norway and southern Sweden. Heimdal, K., Olsson, H., Tretli, S., Flodgren, P., Børresen, A.L., Fossa, S.D. Br. J. Cancer (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Radon daughter exposures at the Radium Hill uranium mine and lung cancer rates among former workers, 1952-87. Woodward, A., Roder, D., McMichael, A.J., Crouch, P., Mylvaganam, A. Cancer Causes Control (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. The prediction of the relative toxicities of radium 224 and of radium 226 in the bones of mice using Monte Carlo techniques. Priest, N.D. The British journal of radiology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. The Public Health Response to Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation: a Workshop. Introduction. Saftlas, A.F., Mellinger-Birdsong, A.K., Stolwijk, J.A. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Harrison S. Martland, MD. The Radium watch-dial workers and the evolution of industrial medicine. Sherk, H.H. New Jersey medicine : the journal of the Medical Society of New Jersey. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Cancer of the oesophagus. I. 1002 cases. Survey and survival. Cederqvist, C., Nielsen, J., Berthelsen, A., Hansen, H.S. Acta chirurgica Scandinavica. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Uptake of BRCA1 genetic testing in adult sisters and daughters of known mutation carriers in Norway. Bodd, T.L., Reichelt, J., Heimdal, K., Moller, P. Journal of genetic counseling. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparison of radiological changes in humans and beagles with skeletal deposits of radium. Morgan, J.P., Pool, R.R., Kirsh, I.E. Health physics. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. The relationship between early and late gastrointestinal complications of radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix. Bourne, R.G., Kearsley, J.H., Grove, W.D., Roberts, S.J. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Diagnosis of anal carcinoma--doctor's finger still the best? Tanum, G., Tveit, K., Karlsen, K.O. Oncology (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule. Poulsen, M., Turner, S. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with peripheral T cell lymphomas. Blystad, A.K., Enblad, G., Kvaløy, S., Berglund , A., Delabie, J., Holte, H., Carlson, K., Kvalheim, G., Bengtsson, M., Hagberg, H. Bone Marrow Transplant. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Clinical (stage III) as compared to subclinical intrapelvic extrauterine tumor spread in endometrial carcinoma: a clinical and histopathological study of 175 patients. Aalders, J.G., Abeler, V., Kolstad, P. Gynecol. Oncol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Chemoradiotherapy of anal carcinoma: tumour response and acute toxicity. Tanum, G., Tveit, K.M., Karlsen, K.O. Oncology (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Long-term effects of plutonium-239 and radium-224 on the distribution and performance of pluripotent haemopoietic progenitor cells and their regulatory microenvironment. Lord, B.I., Molineux, G., Humphreys, E.R., Stones, V.A. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Selection of patients may limit the generalizability of results from cancer trials. Fosså, S.D., Skovlund, E. Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden) (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression has no independent prognostic significance in advanced ovarian cancer. Baekelandt, M., Kristensen, G.B., Tropé, C.G., Nesland, J.M., Holm, R. Anticancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Pathology of radium-induced bone tumors: new aspects of histopathology and histogenesis. Gössner, W. Radiat. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Stage IB carcinoma of the cervix, the Norwegian Radium Hospital: results and complications. III. Urinary and gastrointestinal complications. Kjorstad, K.E., Martimbeau, P.W., Iversen, T. Gynecol. Oncol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Markers of apoptosis in stage IB squamous cervical carcinoma. Van de Putte, G., Holm, R., Lie, A.K., Baekelandt, M., Kristensen, G.B. J. Clin. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Prognostic factors in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Kaasa, S., Kragh-Jensen, E., Bjordal, K., Lund, E., Evensen, J.F., Vermund, H., Monge, O., Boehler, P. Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden) (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Treatment-related premature ovarian failure as a long-term complication after Hodgkin's lymphoma. Haukvik, U., Dieset, I., Bjøro, T., Holte, H., Fosså, S. Ann. Oncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Side effects and quality of life after inadvertent radiation overdosage in brachytherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Evensen, J.F., Bjordal, K., Knutsen, B.H., Olsen, D.R., Støre, G., Tausjø, J.E. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Long-term morbidity and quality of life in patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing definitive radiotherapy or radical prostatectomy. Lilleby, W., Fosså, S.D., Waehre, H.R., Olsen, D.R. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Twenty years experience with semen cryopreservation in testicular cancer patients: who needs it? Magelssen, H., Haugen, T.B., von Düring, V., Melve, K.K., Sandstad, B., Fosså, S.D. Eur. Urol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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