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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Spleen

  • In vivo, IL-12 production was induced in spleens of immunocompetent mice early during M. bovis BCG infection but not in those of mutant mice lacking the receptors for IFN-gamma or TNF [1].
  • Infectious MuLV was invariably recovered from spleens cultured from mice with p30 antigenemia, which was present in all mice that developed lymphoma [2].
  • Nevertheless, the CFU-S from MPSV-infected animals differentiated normally in the spleens of irradiated, normal recipient mice (except for some hyperplasia of the erythroid component of spleen colonies) [3].
  • After infecting these mice with N-tropic FV complex, we followed the replication of spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV) and the generation of SFFV-transformed tumor colony-forming cells (CFC) in their spleens [4].
  • Lymphocytes from the spleens and thymuses of leukemic animals were examined for Thy-1 antigen and immunoglobulins on the cell surface; all the leukemias were composed of T- cells and/or nonreactive cells lacking both the Thy-1 antigen and immunoglobulins [5].

Psychiatry related information on Spleen


High impact information on Spleen

  • TWEAK-/- mice developed oversized spleens with expanded memory and T helper 1 (TH1) subtype cells upon aging and mounted stronger innate and adaptive TH1-based responses against tumor challenge [8].
  • These H2-c-fos mice have enlarged spleens and hyperplastic thymuses containing an increased number of thymic epithelial cells [9].
  • Antagonizing RAGE suppressed cell stress and amyloid deposition in mouse spleens [10].
  • Prion titres were undetectable in spleens of inoculated Prnp(o/o) mice, but were restored to wild-type levels upon reconstitution of the host lymphohaemopoietic system with PrP-expressing cells [11].
  • Friend murine erythroleukaemia (F-MEL) cells are a permanent line of primitive erythroid precursors originally derived from the spleens of mice infected with the Friend strain of murine leukaemia virus [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Spleen


Biological context of Spleen


Anatomical context of Spleen


Associations of Spleen with chemical compounds

  • Here, we demonstrate by immunolocalization experiments and flow cytometric analysis that, contrary to expectation, DC and not MPhi are the initial cells to synthesize IL-12 in the spleens of mice exposed in vivo to an extract of Toxoplasma gondii or to lipopolysaccharide, two well characterized microbial stimulants of the cytokine [28].
  • Because fetal DNP precursors from spleens and livers that had been incubated in organ culture resulted in a greater proportion of clones secreting IgG compared with age-matched uncultured controls, it was concluded that the maturation with regard to the ability to secrete IgG can occur in vitro [18].
  • BALB/cB cells specific for 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl (TNP) were isolated from spleens of immune mice by elution from TNP-gelatin-coated dishes [29].
  • Although cholesterol-rich spur cells are further modified in the circulation of patients with spleens, this abnormality of the membrane lipid bilayer, induced by cholesterol-rich cholesterol-lecithin dispersions, represents the primary spur cell defect [30].
  • However, 7 days following 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment, the incorporation of dThd into DNA in the spleens of mice was significantly increased [31].

Gene context of Spleen

  • We found that IL-10-specific mRNA was produced in the spleens of mice with acute T. cruzi infections [32].
  • Cells harvested from spleens of mice injected with anti-CD3 90 min earlier secreted IL-4, IL-2, and IFN-gamma without further stimulation [33].
  • T lymphocytes were the major source of interferon gamma, whereas non-B/non-T cells were the dominant source of IL-4 and IL-6 in the spleens of immunized animals [34].
  • When lymphocyte colonies derived from a single cell were pooled and individually injected into scid mice, donor-type IgM was measurable in the serum of mice and spleens contained donor-type B cells [35].
  • Increased cycling status of CCR2 (-/-) BM MPC did not result in increased numbers of nucleated cells or MPC in BM or spleens of CCR2 (-/-) mice [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Spleen


  1. Early interleukin 12 production by macrophages in response to mycobacterial infection depends on interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Flesch, I.E., Hess, J.H., Huang, S., Aguet, M., Rothe, J., Bluethmann, H., Kaufmann, S.H. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Transmission of murine leukemia virus (Scripps) from parent to progeny mice: a comparison of assay systems. Jenson, A.B., Groff, D.E., McConahey, P.J., Dixon, F.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of myeloproliferative sarcoma virus on the pluripotential stem cell and granulocyte precursor cell populations of DBA/2 mice. Klein, B., Le Bousse, C., Fagg, B., Smajda-Joffe, F., Vehmeyer, K., Mori, K.J., Jasmin, C., Ostertag, W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. The Fv-2r resistance gene in mice: its effect on spleen colony formation by Friend virus-transformed cells. Blank, K.J., Steeves, R.A., Lilly, F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Immunofluorescence and histologic studies of virus-induced murine lymphocytic leukemias. Dawson, P.J., Dresler, S.L., Fieldsteel, A.H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. Vaccination with syngeneic, lymphoma-derived immunoglobulin idiotype combined with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor primes mice for a protective T-cell response. Kwak, L.W., Young, H.A., Pennington, R.W., Weeks, S.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Accelerated development of neurochemical and behavioral deficits in LP-BM5 infected mice with targeted deletions of the IFN-gamma gene. Koustova, E., Sei, Y., McCarty, T., Espey, M.G., Ming, R., Morse, H.C., Basile, A.S. J. Neuroimmunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. TWEAK attenuates the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. Maecker, H., Varfolomeev, E., Kischkel, F., Lawrence, D., LeBlanc, H., Lee, W., Hurst, S., Danilenko, D., Li, J., Filvaroff, E., Yang, B., Daniel, D., Ashkenazi, A. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. c-fos expression interferes with thymus development in transgenic mice. Rüther, U., Müller, W., Sumida, T., Tokuhisa, T., Rajewsky, K., Wagner, E.F. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Receptor-dependent cell stress and amyloid accumulation in systemic amyloidosis. Yan, S.D., Zhu, H., Zhu, A., Golabek, A., Du, H., Roher, A., Yu, J., Soto, C., Schmidt, A.M., Stern, D., Kindy, M. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. PrP-expressing tissue required for transfer of scrapie infectivity from spleen to brain. Blättler, T., Brandner, S., Raeber, A.J., Klein, M.A., Voigtländer, T., Weissmann, C., Aguzzi, A. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Deregulated expression of c-myc by murine erythroleukaemia cells prevents differentiation. Prochownik, E.V., Kukowska, J. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Synthesis and assembly of membrane skeletal proteins in mammalian red cell precursors. Hanspal, M., Palek, J. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Systemic gene therapy of murine melanoma using tissue specific expression of the HSVtk gene involves an immune component. Vile, R.G., Nelson, J.A., Castleden, S., Chong, H., Hart, I.R. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. The type 5, acid phosphatase from spleen of humans with hairy cell leukemia. Purification, properties, immunological characterization, and comparison with porcine uteroferrin. Ketcham, C.M., Baumbach, G.A., Bazer, F.W., Roberts, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Granuloma formation in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice in response to progressive BCG infection. Tendency not to form granulomas in the lung is associated with faster bacterial growth in this organ. North, R.J., Izzo, A.A. Am. J. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Enzymic differentiation of neurologic and nonneurologic forms of Gaucher's disease. Glew, R.H., Daniels, L.B., Clark, L.S., Hoyer, S.W. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Ontogenic development of B-lymphocyte function and tolerance susceptibility in vivo and in an in vitro organ culture system. Teale, J.M., Mandel, T.E. J. Exp. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Enhancement of erythroid target cells for Friend murine leukemia virus by intravenous pyran treatment. Schuller, G.B., Morahan, P.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. A model for spontaneous B-lineage lymphomas in IgHmu-HOX11 transgenic mice. Hough, M.R., Reis, M.D., Singaraja, R., Bryce, D.M., Kamel-Reid, S., Dardick, I., Breitman, M.L., Dubé, I.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Host-pathogen interactions: Host resistance factor Nramp1 up-regulates the expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 virulence genes. Zaharik, M.L., Vallance, B.A., Puente, J.L., Gros, P., Finlay, B.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibition of murine erythroid colony formation in vitro by interferon gamma and correction by interferon receptor immunoadhesin. Means, R.T., Krantz, S.B., Luna, J., Marsters, S.A., Ashkenazi, A. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Impaired prion replication in spleens of mice lacking functional follicular dendritic cells. Montrasio, F., Frigg, R., Glatzel, M., Klein, M.A., Mackay, F., Aguzzi, A., Weissmann, C. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Evolution of a complex T cell receptor repertoire during primary and recall bacterial infection. Busch, D.H., Pilip, I., Pamer, E.G. J. Exp. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. CD45-null transgenic mice reveal a positive regulatory role for CD45 in early thymocyte development, in the selection of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes, and B cell maturation. Byth, K.F., Conroy, L.A., Howlett, S., Smith, A.J., May, J., Alexander, D.R., Holmes, N. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Very late activation antigen 4-vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 interaction is involved in the formation of erythroblastic islands. Sadahira, Y., Yoshino, T., Monobe, Y. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Changes in suppressor mechanisms during postnatal development in mice. Calkins, C.E., Stutman, O. J. Exp. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  28. In vivo microbial stimulation induces rapid CD40 ligand-independent production of interleukin 12 by dendritic cells and their redistribution to T cell areas. Reis e Sousa, C., Hieny, S., Scharton-Kersten, T., Jankovic, D., Charest, H., Germain, R.N., Sher, A. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Antigen presentation by hapten-specific B lymphocytes. I. Role of surface immunoglobulin receptors. Rock, K.L., Benacerraf, B., Abbas, A.K. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. Modification of red cell membrane structure by cholesterol-rich lipid dispersions. A model for the primary spur cell defect. Cooper, R.A., Arner, E.C., Wiley, J.S., Shattil, S.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  31. Depression of DNA synthesis in mouse spleen after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Cihák, A., Veselý, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1979) [Pubmed]
  32. Interleukin 10 and interferon gamma regulation of experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Silva, J.S., Morrissey, P.J., Grabstein, K.H., Mohler, K.M., Anderson, D., Reed, S.G. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. CD4pos, NK1.1pos T cells promptly produce interleukin 4 in response to in vivo challenge with anti-CD3. Yoshimoto, T., Paul, W.E. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. IgE receptor-positive non-B/non-T cells dominate the production of interleukin 4 and interleukin 6 in immunized mice. Aoki, I., Kinzer, C., Shirai, A., Paul, W.E., Klinman, D.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Clonal proliferation of murine lymphohemopoietic progenitors in culture. Hirayama, F., Shih, J.P., Awgulewitsch, A., Warr, G.W., Clark, S.C., Ogawa, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Enhanced myeloid progenitor cell cycling and apoptosis in mice lacking the chemokine receptor, CCR2. Reid, S., Ritchie, A., Boring, L., Gosling, J., Cooper, S., Hangoc, G., Charo, I.F., Broxmeyer, H.E. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. The role of H-2 and Ia antigens in graft-versus-host reactions (GVHR). Presence of host alloantigens on donor cells after GVHR and suppression of GVHR with an anti-Ia antiserum against hose Ia antigens. Prud'homme, G.H., Sohn, U., Delovitch, T.L. J. Exp. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  38. Identification and upregulation of galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine macrophage lectin in rat cardiac allografts with arteriosclerosis. Russell, M.E., Utans, U., Wallace, A.F., Liang, P., Arceci, R.J., Karnovsky, M.J., Wyner, L.R., Yamashita, Y., Tarn, C. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  39. A murine model for B-lymphocyte somatic cell gene therapy. Sutkowski, N., Kuo, M.L., Varela-Echavarria, A., Dougherty, J.P., Ron, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  40. Major histocompatibility complex-mismatched allogeneic bone marrow transplantation using perforin and/or Fas ligand double-defective CD4(+) donor T cells: involvement of cytotoxic function by donor lymphocytes prior to graft-versus-host disease pathogenesis. Jiang, Z., Podack, E., Levy, R.B. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  41. Suppression of antibody-mediated and cell-mediated murine immunity by the carcinogen N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]acetamide. Headley, D.B., Cohen, S.M., Bryan, G.T. Cancer Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
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