The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Baycox     1-methyl-3-[3-methyl-4-[4...

Synonyms: Toltrazuril, Toltrazurilo, Toltrazurilum, PubChem2436, BAY-VI-9142, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Toltrazuril


High impact information on Toltrazuril

  • Evidence based on thermal stability and enzyme inhibition data suggests that the sulfoxidation of the drug toltrazuril by rat liver microsomes is catalyzed by different cytochromes P-450 [4].
  • The relative rate of formation of the two toltrazuril enantiomers [(A)- and (B)-sulfoxides] depends on the source of the microsomes, suggesting that different cytochromes P-450 have different stereoselectivities [4].
  • The efficacies of 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) of toltrazuril (Toltra) 2 days post-infection (dpi), 2 mg/kg BW of diclazuril 2 and 3 dpi and 200 mg/kg BW of sulphadimidine 2, 3 and 4 dpi were compared in a model for piglet isosporosis [5].
  • Histopathology revealed mostly villous necrosis and atrophy in the small intestines except the duodenum, which peaked at 7 dpi, in all groups except Toltra [5].
  • In summary, we concluded that (1) serology was not an entirely appropriate tool to answer our initial question and (2) toltrazuril has the potential to eliminate N. caninum in newborn calves [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of Toltrazuril


Biological context of Toltrazuril


Anatomical context of Toltrazuril

  • Following treatment with toltrazuril, birds inoculated with high doses of oocysts were immune to subsequent challenge [12].
  • This is supported by the fact that: (1) although the lack of B-cells did not impair the effect of toltrazuril, (2) the lack of T-cells did not allow for a full efficacy of treatment [13].
  • Toltrazuril does not interfere with the process of parasite protein recognition by the immune system during infection [14].
  • A symmetric triazinone, toltrazuril, was tested in vivo against Glugea anomala parasitizing the connective tissue of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) [15].
  • Therefore, it is likely that the sensitivity of apicomplexans to the herbicide toltrazuril depends on the interaction of the herbicide with the D1 protein of the photosynthetic reaction center of the parasite's organelles [16].

Associations of Toltrazuril with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Toltrazuril

  • Toltrazuril also showed an inhibitory effect on the dihydroorotate-cytochrome C reductase from mouse liver [8].
  • The number of cells releasing IFN-gamma or IL-4 was not dependent on the status of infection or previous treatment with Toltrazuril [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Toltrazuril


  1. Comparative studies on the efficacy of sulphachlorpyrazine and toltrazuril for the treatment of caecal coccidiosis in chickens. Laczay, P., Vörös, G., Semjén, G. Int. J. Parasitol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Control of clinical coccidiosis of calves due to Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii with toltrazuril under field conditions. Mundt, H.C., Bangoura, B., Mengel, H., Keidel, J., Daugschies, A. Parasitol. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Attempted chemoprophylaxis of cryptosporidiosis in chickens, using diclazuril, toltrazuril, or garlic extract. Sréter, T., Széll, Z., Varga, I. J. Parasitol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Specific and enantioselective sulfoxidation of an aryl-trifluoromethyl sulfide by rat liver cytochromes P-450. Benoit, E., Cresteil, T., Riviere, J.L., Delatour, P. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Efficacy of various anticoccidials against experimental porcine neonatal isosporosis. Mundt, H.C., Mundt-W??stenberg, S., Daugschies, A., Joachim, A. Parasitol. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Humoral immune reaction of newborn calves congenitally infected with Neospora caninum and experimentally treated with toltrazuril. Haerdi, C., Haessig, M., Sager, H., Greif, G., Staubli, D., Gottstein, B. Parasitol. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox((R)), a live anticoccidial vaccine in a commercial trial in broiler chickens in China. Suo, X., Zhang, J.X., Li, Z.G., Yang, C.T., Min, Q.R., Xu, L.T., Liu, Q., Zhu, X.Q. Vet. Parasitol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Possible mode of action of toltrazuril: studies on two Eimeria species and mammalian and Ascaris suum enzymes. Harder, A., Haberkorn, A. Parasitol. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Treatment of mice with the anticoccidial drug Toltrazuril does not interfere with the development of a specific cellular intestinal immune response to Eimeria falciformis. Steinfelder, S., Lucius, R., Greif, G., Pogonka, T. Parasitol. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of cytochrome P-450 1A induction on enantioselective metabolism and pharmacokinetics of an aryltrifluoromethyl sulfide in the rat. Benoît, E., Buronfosse, T., Delatour, P. Chirality. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Occurrence of Isospora suis in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. Mundt, H.C., Cohnen, A., Daugschies, A., Joachim, A., Prosl, H., Schmäschke, R., Westphal, B. J. Vet. Med. B Infect. Dis. Vet. Public Health (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Control of a line of E. tenella, partly resistant to monensin, by including toltrazuril discontinuously in the drinking water of chickens. Chapman, H.D. J. Comp. Pathol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. The role of B- and T-cell immunity in toltrazuril-treated C57BL/6 WT, microMT and nude mice experimentally infected with Neospora caninum. Ammann, P., Waldvogel, A., Breyer, I., Esposito, M., Müller, N., Gottstein, B. Parasitol. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Immunity to coccidiosis after treatment with toltrazuril. Greif, G. Parasitol. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Transmission electron microscopic studies on the effects of toltrazuril on Glugea anomala, Moniez, 1887 (Microsporidia) infecting the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Schmahl, G., el Toukhy, A., Ghaffar, F.A. Parasitol. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Parasitic apicomplexans harbor a chlorophyll a-D1 complex, the potential target for therapeutic triazines. Hackstein, J.H., Mackenstedt, U., Mehlhorn, H., Meijerink, J.P., Schubert, H., Leunissen, J.A. Parasitol. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of toltrazuril and ponazuril on Hammondia heydorni (syn. Neospora caninum) infections in mice. Darius, A.K., Mehlhorn, H., Heydorn, A.O. Parasitol. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Efficacy of some anticoccidial drugs for treating coccidial enteritis of the common carp caused by Goussia carpelli (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Molnár, K., Ostoros, G. Acta Vet. Hung. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Chemoprophylaxis of coccidiosis in lambs with a single oral dose of toltrazuril. Gjerde, B., Helle, O. Vet. Parasitol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of toltrazuril and ponazuril on the fine structure and multiplication of tachyzoites of the NC-1 strain of Neospora caninum (a synonym of Hammondia heydorni) in cell cultures. Darius, A.K., Mehlhorn, H., Heydorn, A.O. Parasitol. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities