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Chemical Compound Review

Amprolium ion     5-[(6-methylpyridin-1- yl)methyl]-2-propyl...

Synonyms: SureCN363586, AG-J-53657, BSPBio_000015, BSPBio_001864, KBioGR_000600, ...
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Disease relevance of amprolium

  • Amprolium for coccidiosis in AIDS [1].
  • Culture of neuroblastoma cells in a medium of low-thiamine concentration (6 nM) and in the presence of the transport inhibitor amprolium leads to the appearance of overt signs of necrosis; i.e., the chromatin condenses in dark patches, the oxygen consumption decreases, mitochondria are uncoupled, and their cristae are disorganized [2].
  • In each of 2 experiments, 2 calves received an oral dose of amprolium at 100 mg/kg of body weight for 30 days, 2 calves were similarly inoculated but received no medication, and 2 calves served as uninoculated, unmedicated controls [3].
  • Effect of amprolium on acute sarcocystosis in experimentally infected calves [3].
  • The manufacturer's proposed level (0.0175%) and twice the proposed level (0.0350%) of amprolium had no significant effect on weight gains or mortality in the safety trial [4].

High impact information on amprolium


Chemical compound and disease context of amprolium


Biological context of amprolium


Anatomical context of amprolium

  • When 45 birds were given 2.0 X 10(6) oocysts, resistance to amprolium and clopidol appeared after 6 and 7 passages respectively [18].
  • Amprolium was also ineffective in consistently reducing parasite numbers in the duodenum and ileum [19].
  • Egg yolk was found to be frequently contaminated with low levels of amprolium (29.4% positive of 266 samples investigated; mean concentration of positive samples = 58 micrograms/kg), whereas only a few muscle samples contained detectable levels (4.9% positive of 81 samples investigated; mean concentration of positive samples = 5 micrograms/kg) [20].
  • Cerebrospinal fluid was also collected prior to amprolium administration and at the onset of clinical signs [21].
  • Polioencephalomalacia induced with amprolium in buffalo calves: pathologic changes of the central nervous system [22].

Associations of amprolium with other chemical compounds


Gene context of amprolium

  • Determination of lignocaine and amprolium in pharmaceutical formulations using AAS [25].
  • Four feeding trials were conducted in which Large White turkeys were fed diets containing either amprolium or butynorate to 8 or 9 weeks of age to female and male turkeys, respectively [26].
  • Dietary treatments included unmedicated control (UMC), amprolium (AMP, 125 mg/kg), and 3 levels of halofuginone hydrobromide (HAL, during 0 to 4 and 4 to 8 wk of age, in 3.3; 3.1.5; and 1.5,1.5 mg/kg, respectively) [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of amprolium

  • Assay of amprolium in poultry feedingstuffs by high-performance liquid chromatography [28].
  • Clinical and biochemical findings in bovine cerebrocortical necrosis produced by oral administration of amprolium [29].
  • A rapid, sensitive and reproducible reversed-phase HPLC assay was developed for the determination of amprolium (APL) in chicken plasma [30].
  • Amprolium (600 mg/kg/day) alone was given intraruminally 6 sheep and 4 cattle, all of which showed neurological signs and abnormal electroencephalograms [31].
  • A simplified determining method for the routine monitoring of residual amprolium in edible chicken tissues (muscle and liver) is developed using a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with a photodiode-array detector after sample cleanup by an Ultrafree-MC/PL centrifugal ultrafiltration unit [32].


  1. Amprolium for coccidiosis in AIDS. Veldhuyze van Zanten, S.J., Lange, J.M., Sauerwein, H.P., Rijpstra, A.C., Laarman, J.J., Rietra, P.J., Danner, S.A. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Thiamine deficiency--induced partial necrosis and mitochondrial uncoupling in neuroblastoma cells are rapidly reversed by addition of thiamine. Bettendorff, L., Sluse, F., Goessens, G., Wins, P., Grisar, T. J. Neurochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of amprolium on acute sarcocystosis in experimentally infected calves. Fayer, R., Johnson, A.J. J. Parasitol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Use of amprolium for the control of coccidiosis in pheasants. Patton, W.H., Schwartz, L.D., Babish, J.G., Lisk, D.J. Avian Dis. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Amprolium poisoning of preruminant lambs: an investigation of the encephalopathy and the haemorrhagic and diarrhoeic syndromes. Morgan, K.T., Coop, R.L., Doxey, D.L. J. Pathol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Metabolic impairment elicits brain cell type-selective changes in oxidative stress and cell death in culture. Park, L.C., Calingasan, N.Y., Uchida, K., Zhang, H., Gibson, G.E. J. Neurochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Thiamine deficiency induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in neurons. Wang, X., Wang, B., Fan, Z., Shi, X., Ke, Z.J., Luo, J. Neuroscience (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of amprolium and dinitolmide on sporulation of oocysts of field isolates of Eimeria acervulina. Mathis, G.F., McDougald, L.R. Parasitology (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of amprolium and monensin on oocyst discharge, feed utilization, and ruminal metabolism of lambs with coccidiosis. Horton, G.M., Stockdale, P.H. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Chemotherapeutic efficacy of sulphadimidine, amprolium, halofuginone and chloroquine phosphate in experimental Eimeria bareillyi coccidiosis of buffaloes. Sanyal, P.K., Ruprah, N.S., Chhabra, M.B. Vet. Parasitol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Eimeria infections in litter-based, high stocking density systems for loose-housed laying hens in Sweden. Lundén, A., Thebo, P., Gunnarsson, S., Hooshmian-Rad, P., Tauson, R., Uggla, A. Br. Poult. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. A survey of sensitivity to anticoccidial drugs in 60 isolates of coccidia from broiler chickens in Brazil and Argentina. McDougald, L.R., Da Silva, J.M., Solis, J., Braga, M. Avian Dis. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Efficacy and compatibility of amprolium and carbarsone against Coccidiosis and blackhead in turkeys. McDougald, L.R. Poult. Sci. (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. An investigation into the cytogenetic damage induced by the coccidiostatic agents amprolium, carbadox, dimetridazole and ronidazole. Oud, J.L., Reutlinger, A.H., Branger, J. Mutat. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Elimination of plasmidic resistance to ampicillin and of enterotoxinogenicity in certain enteric gram-negative bacteria after incubation with high concentrations of amprolium. Ozanne, G., Mathieu, L.G., Martin, D. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Control of Isospora suis-induced coccidiosis on a swine farm. Ernst, J.V., Lindsay, D.S., Current, W.L. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Bioavailability of amprolium in fasting and nonfasting chickens after intravenous and oral administration. Hamamoto, K., Koike, R., Machida, Y. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Eimeria tenella: experimental studies on the development of resistance to amprolium, clopidol and methyl benzoquate. Chapman, H.D. Parasitology (1978) [Pubmed]
  19. Prevention of coccidiosis in bobwhites by medication. Ruff, M.D., Wilkins, G.C., Chute, M.B. Poult. Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Determination of amprolium in egg yolk and muscle tissue (chicken) by HPLC with post-column reaction and fluorometric detection, using on-line sample clean-up and pre-concentration steps. van Leeuwen, W., Wilhelmus van Gend, H. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und -Forschung. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Polioencephalomalacia induced with amprolium in buffalo calves--clinicopathologic findings. Tanwar, R.K., Malik, K.S., Gahlot, A.K. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Polioencephalomalacia induced with amprolium in buffalo calves: pathologic changes of the central nervous system. Tanwar, R.K., Malik, K.S., Sadana, J.R. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Anticoccidial activity of eight compounds in domestic mink. Foreyt, W.J., Todd, A.C., Hartsough, G.R. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. Efficacy and toxicity of orally administrated anti-coccidial drugs for innovative treatments of Myxobolus sp. infection in Puntazzo puntazzo. Athanassopoulou, F., Karagouni, E., Dotsika, E., Ragias, V., Tavla, J., Christofilloyanis, P., Vatsos, I. Dis. Aquat. Org. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Determination of lignocaine and amprolium in pharmaceutical formulations using AAS. El-Hawary, W.F. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. The influence of amprolium and butynorate on growth rate and feed utilization by large white turkeys. Spencer, G.K., Waldroup, P.W. Poult. Sci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Efficacy of halofuginone as a coccidiostat for turkeys. Waibel, P.E., Enueme, J.E., Halvorson, J.C., Grant, R.J. Poult. Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Assay of amprolium in poultry feedingstuffs by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cox, G.B., Sugden, K. The Analyst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  29. Clinical and biochemical findings in bovine cerebrocortical necrosis produced by oral administration of amprolium. Kasahara, T., Ichijo, S., Osame, S., Sarashina, T. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Rapid and sensitive determination of amprolium in chicken plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column reaction. Hamamoto, K., Koike, R., Shirakura, A., Sasaki, N., Machida, Y. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Electroencephalographic observation on sheep and cattle with experimental cerebrocortical necrosis. Itabisashi, T., Horino, R., Hirano, K., Maeda, M. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Simplified high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of residual amprolium in edible chicken tissues. Furusawa, N. Journal of chromatographic science. (2002) [Pubmed]
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