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Chemical Compound Review

Fumazone     1,2-dibromo-3-chloro-propane

Synonyms: Nemabrom, Nemafume, Nemagone, Fumagon, Nemagon, ...
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Disease relevance of Fumazone

  • The suspected cause was exposure to the chemical 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (D.B.C.P.). The major effects, seen in 14 of 25 non-vasectomised men, were azoospermia or oligospermia and raised serum-levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone [1].
  • The nematocide and soil fumigant 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) is a carcinogen and a mutagen and displays target-organ toxicity to the testes and the kidney [2].
  • The farmers were also exposed to dibromochloropropane during the early employment years, and most of them experienced sterility/fertility problems [3].
  • 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), a haloalkane nematocide and soil fumigant, is metabolically activated to chemically reactive species that are direct-acting mutagens in a Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 test system [4].
  • This paper discusses breast cancer patterns in Hawaii in the context of documented episodes of exposure to two endocrine-disrupting chemicals, chlordane/heptachlor and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), at levels that sometimes exceeded federal standards by several orders of magnitude [5].

High impact information on Fumazone


Chemical compound and disease context of Fumazone


Biological context of Fumazone


Anatomical context of Fumazone


Associations of Fumazone with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Fumazone


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fumazone


  1. Infertility in male pesticide workers. Whorton, D., Krauss, R.M., Marshall, S., Milby, T.H. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Metabolic activation of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane: evidence for the formation of reactive episulfonium ion intermediates. Pearson, P.G., Soderlund, E.J., Dybing, E., Nelson, S.D. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Cytogenetic effects from exposure to mixed pesticides and the influence from genetic susceptibility. Au, W.W., Sierra-Torres, C.H., Cajas-Salazar, N., Shipp, B.K., Legator, M.S. Environ. Health Perspect. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Metabolic activation of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane to mutagenic metabolites: detection and mechanism of formation of (Z)- and (E)-2-chloro-3-(bromomethyl)oxirane. Pearson, P.G., Omichinski, J.G., Myers, T.G., Søderlund, E.J., Dybing, E., Nelson, S.D. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Breast cancer and pesticides in Hawaii: the need for further study. Allen, R.H., Gottlieb, M., Clute, E., Pongsiri, M.J., Sherman, J., Obrams, G.I. Environ. Health Perspect. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. The role of oxidative and conjugative pathways in the activation of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane to DNA-damaging products in rat testicular cells. Omichinski, J.G., Brunborg, G., Holme, J.A., Søderlund, E.J., Nelson, S.D., Dybing, E. Mol. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. The exaggerated prolactin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone and metoclopramide in 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced azoospermia. Leroith, D., Potashnik, G., Dunn, J., Spitz, I.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Different mechanisms are involved in DNA damage, bacterial mutagenicity and cytotoxicity induced by 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in suspensions of rat liver cells. Holme, J.A., Søderlund, E.J., Brunborg, G., Omichinski, J.G., Bekkedal, K., Trygg, B., Nelson, S.D., Dybing, E. Carcinogenesis (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. The effects of drugs on sperm. Drife, J.O. Drugs (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Mutagenicity of halogenated propanes and their methylated derivatives. Ratpan, F., Plaumann, H. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Detection and mechanism of formation of the potent direct-acting mutagen 2-bromoacrolein from 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. Omichinski, J.G., Soderlund, E.J., Dybing, E., Pearson, P.G., Nelson, S.D. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Synthesis and mutagenicity of selectively methylated analogs of tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. Omichinski, J.G., Søderlund, E.J., Bausano, J.A., Dybing, E., Nelson, S.D. Mutagenesis (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Morphology of nasal-cavity tumours in rats after chronic inhalation of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. Reznik, G., Reznik-Schüller, H., Ward, J.M., Stinson, S.F. Br. J. Cancer (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Problems associated with collecting drinking water quality data for community studies: a case example, Fresno County, California. Whorton, M.D., Morgan, R.W., Wong, O., Larson, S., Gordon, N. American journal of public health. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Restoration of spermatogenesis in dibromochloropropane (DBCP)-treated rats by hormone suppression. Meistrich, M.L., Wilson, G., Porter, K.L., Huhtaniemi, I., Shetty, G., Shuttlesworth, G.A. Toxicol. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Toxicokinetics of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) in the rat. Gingell, R., Beatty, P.W., Mitschke, H.R., Page, A.C., Sawin, V.L., Putcha, L., Kramer, W.G. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Greenwell, A., Tomaszewski, K.E., Melnick, R.L. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Glutathione-mediated binding of dibromoalkanes to DNA: specificity of rat glutathione-S-transferases and dibromoalkane structure. Inskeep, P.B., Guengerich, F.P. Carcinogenesis (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)-induced infertility in male rats mediated by a post-testicular effect. Kluwe, W.M., Lamb, J.C., Greenwell, A.E., Harrington, F.W. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of pesticides on testicular function. Marshall, S., Whorton, D., Krauss, R.M., Palmer, W.S. Urology (1978) [Pubmed]
  21. Micronucleus induction by azobenzene and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in the rat: evaluation of a triple-dose protocol. George, E., Wootton, A.K., Gatehouse, D.G. Mutat. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Utilization of trihalogenated propanes by Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 through heterologous expression of the haloalkane dehalogenase from Rhodococcus sp. strain M15-3. Bosma, T., Kruizinga, E., de Bruin, E.J., Poelarends, G.J., Janssen, D.B. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Activation and inactivation of carcinogenic dihaloalkanes and other compounds by glutathione S-transferase 5-5 in Salmonella typhimurium tester strain NM5004. Shimada, T., Yamazaki, H., Oda, Y., Hiratsuka, A., Watabe, T., Guengerich, F.P. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Prevention of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)-induced kidney necrosis and testicular atrophy by 3-aminobenzamide. Holme, J.A., Søderlund, J., Låg, M., Brunborg, G., Dybing, E. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Gonadotoxic effects of 2-hexanone and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane on the enzymatic activity of rat testicular 17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase. Kelce, W.R., Raisbeck, M.F., Ganjam, V.K. Toxicol. Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and epoxide hydrolase in rat liver, kidney, testis, prostate glands, and stomach by a potent nematocide, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. Suzuki, K., Lee, I.P. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Dibromochloropropane inhibits spermatogonial development in rats. Meistrich, M.L., Wilson, G., Shuttlesworth, G.A., Porter, K.L. Reprod. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Re "sperm count depression in pesticide applicators exposed to dibromochloropropane". Kahn, E., Whorton, D. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. Mouse specific-locus test for the induction of heritable gene mutations by dibromochloropropane (DBCP). Russell, L.B., Hunsicker, P.R., Cacheiro, N.L. Mutat. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Quantitative determination of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in whole rat blood and drinking water by gas chromatography. Kastl, P.E., Hermann, E.A., Braun, W.H. J. Chromatogr. (1981) [Pubmed]
  31. Testicular necrosis and DNA damage caused by deuterated and methylated analogs of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in the rat. Søderlund, E.J., Brunborg, G., Omichinski, J.G., Holme, J.A., Dahl, J.E., Nelson, S.D., Dybing, E. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Effects of partial hepatectomy on organ-specific toxic response to 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP). Kluwe, W.M. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (1983) [Pubmed]
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