The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

PACRG  -  PARK2 co-regulated

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: FLJ32724, GLUP, Glup, HAK005771, Molecular chaperone/chaperonin-binding protein, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of PACRG


High impact information on PACRG


Chemical compound and disease context of PACRG


Biological context of PACRG


Anatomical context of PACRG

  • We have studied the role of promoter hypermethylation in the regulation of PARK2 and PACRG expression in different tumor cell lines and primary patient samples [2].
  • Our results provide the first evidence for PACRG function within the axoneme, where we suggest that PACRG acts to maintain functional stability of the axonemal outer doublets of both motile and sensory cilia and flagella [11].
  • Enzyme assay of lysates of a girl's lymphocytes or cultured fibroblasts showed little residual activity and a normal beta Gl-specific mRNA level, as revealed by Northern-blot analysis [13].
  • RT-PCR showed that the Gl-NOS mRNA was present in testis, ovary, gill, eyestalk neural ganglia, thoracic ganglion and Y-organ [14].

Associations of PACRG with chemical compounds

  • We have tentatively named this novel gene Parkin co-regulated gene, or PACRG [10].
  • The Gl proteins of several subjects were typed by two polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) systems: acid-lactate PAGE followed by staining with the periodic acid-Schiff reagent and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE followed by electrophoretic transfer and staining with amido black or concanavalin A [15].
  • Gl-NOS had single amino acid differences in all three highly conserved FAD-binding sequences, which distinguished it from other NOS sequences [14].

Other interactions of PACRG

  • One was 1,002 kb in size and contained PACRG and QKI, while the second was 199 kb and harbours a single gene, ARID1B [16].
  • Analysis of mutants depleted in particular flagellar and basal body proteins [gamma-tubulin, delta-tubulin, Parkin co-regulated gene product (PACRG) or the paraflagellar rod protein PFR2] allowed a dissection of the mechanisms for central pair constraint [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PACRG

  • Immunohistochemistry confirmed that the Gl-NOS protein was expressed in Y-organ, ovary and gill [14].
  • Nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR generated a full-length cDNA sequence (3982 bp) of land crab NO synthase (Gl-NOS) from molting gland (Y-organ) and thoracic ganglion mRNA [14].


  1. Genetic analysis of parkin co-regulated gene (PACRG) in patients with early-onset parkinsonism. Deng, H., Le, W.D., Xie, W.J., Pan, T.H., Zhang, X., Jankovic, J. Neurosci. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Abnormal methylation of the common PARK2 and PACRG promoter is associated with downregulation of gene expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia. Agirre, X., Román-Gómez, J., Vázquez, I., Jiménez-Velasco, A., Garate, L., Montiel-Duarte, C., Artieda, P., Cordeu, L., Lahortiga, I., Calasanz, M.J., Heiniger, A., Torres, A., Minna, J.D., Prósper, F. Int. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Susceptibility to leprosy is associated with PARK2 and PACRG. Mira, M.T., Alcaïs, A., Nguyen, V.T., Moraes, M.O., Di Flumeri, C., Vu, H.T., Mai, C.P., Nguyen, T.H., Nguyen, N.B., Pham, X.K., Sarno, E.N., Alter, A., Montpetit, A., Moraes, M.E., Moraes, J.R., Doré, C., Gallant, C.J., Lepage, P., Verner, A., Van De Vosse, E., Hudson, T.J., Abel, L., Schurr, E. Nature (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. PARK2/PACRG polymorphisms and susceptibility to typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Ali, S., Vollaard, A.M., Widjaja, S., Surjadi, C., van de Vosse, E., van Dissel, J.T. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Genetic dissection of immunity in leprosy. Alcaïs, A., Mira, M., Casanova, J.L., Schurr, E., Abel, L. Curr. Opin. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Deletion of the Parkin coregulated gene causes male sterility in the quaking(viable) mouse mutant. Lorenzetti, D., Bishop, C.E., Justice, M.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Alleles at the PRB3 locus coding for a disulfide-bonded human salivary proline-rich glycoprotein (Gl 8) and a null in an Ashkenazi Jew. Azen, E.A., Minaguchi, K., Latreille, P., Kim, H.S. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. A product of the human gene adjacent to parkin is a component of Lewy bodies and suppresses Pael receptor-induced cell death. Imai, Y., Soda, M., Murakami, T., Shoji, M., Abe, K., Takahashi, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Deletion of the parkin and PACRG gene promoter in early-onset parkinsonism. Lesage, S., Magali, P., Lohmann, E., Lacomblez, L., Teive, H., Janin, S., Cousin, P.Y., D??rr, A., Brice, A. Hum. Mutat. (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of a novel gene linked to parkin via a bi-directional promoter. West, A.B., Lockhart, P.J., O'Farell, C., Farrer, M.J. J. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. The Parkin co-regulated gene product, PACRG, is an evolutionarily conserved axonemal protein that functions in outer-doublet microtubule morphogenesis. Dawe, H.R., Farr, H., Portman, N., Shaw, M.K., Gull, K. J. Cell. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Association study of major risk single nucleotide polymorphisms in the common regulatory region of PARK2 and PACRG genes with leprosy in an Indian population. Malhotra, D., Darvishi, K., Lohra, M., Kumar, H., Grover, C., Sood, S., Reddy, B.S., Bamezai, R.N. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular basis of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII: replacement of Ala619 in beta-glucuronidase with Val. Tomatsu, S., Sukegawa, K., Ikedo, Y., Fukuda, S., Yamada, Y., Sasaki, T., Okamoto, H., Kuwabara, T., Orii, T. Gene (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. A crustacean nitric oxide synthase expressed in nerve ganglia, Y-organ, gill and gonad of the tropical land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis. Kim, H.W., Batista, L.A., Hoppes, J.L., Lee, K.J., Mykles, D.L. J. Exp. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. PRB3 null mutations result in absence of the proline-rich glycoprotein Gl and abolish Fusobacterium nucleatum interactions with saliva in vitro. Azen, E., Prakobphol, A., Fisher, S.J. Infect. Immun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Small regions of overlapping deletions on 6q26 in human astrocytic tumours identified using chromosome 6 tile path array-CGH. Ichimura, K., Mungall, A.J., Fiegler, H., Pearson, D.M., Dunham, I., Carter, N.P., Collins, V.P. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Basal body and flagellum mutants reveal a rotational constraint of the central pair microtubules in the axonemes of trypanosomes. Gadelha, C., Wickstead, B., McKean, P.G., Gull, K. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities