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Gene Review

Galr1  -  galanin receptor 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: GAL1-R, GALR-1, Galanin receptor type 1, Galnr, Galnr1
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Disease relevance of Galr1


Psychiatry related information on Galr1

  • Under basal condition, Galr1 knock-out (Galr1(-/-)) mice had shortened response latency on the hot plate, but not tail flick and paw radiant heat, tests [1].
  • These results are of interest in the context of galanin receptor subtypes in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, and the differential alterations of hippocampal subregions in neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's dementia [5].
  • Galanin receptor antagonists : a potential novel pharmacological treatment for mood disorders [6].
  • These studies suggest that galanin receptor agonists could be useful therapeutic agents to combat opiate addiction [7].

High impact information on Galr1

  • These data indicate that pathogen-induced increases in Gal1-R expression by epithelial cells lining the colon may represent a novel unifying pathway responsible for at least a portion of the excessive fluid secretion observed during infectious diarrhea [8].
  • Pathogenic E. coli, but not normal commensal organisms, increase Gal1-R mRNA synthesis and [(125)I]galanin binding sites [8].
  • Pathogenic Escherichia coli, but not nonpathogenic E. coli, activate a p50/p65 NF-kappa B complex that binds to oligonucleotides corresponding to a recognition site located within the 5' flanking region of the human GAL1R gene [8].
  • We have shown previously that galanin-1 receptors (Gal1-R) are expressed by epithelial cells lining the human GI tract, and upon activation cause Cl- secretion [8].
  • Pretreatment with the putative peptidergic galanin receptor antagonist M35 almost completely blocked the elevation of NA and 5-HT levels in the GalOE/P after RFS [9].

Biological context of Galr1

  • Anxiety-related behaviors on the light/dark exploration, emergence, and open field tests were normal in GAL-R1 -/-. This test-specific anxiety-like phenotype was confirmed in a second, independent cohort of GAL-R1 null mutant mice and +/+ controls [10].
  • Galanin receptor 1 gene expression is regulated by cyclic AMP through a CREB-dependent mechanism [11].
  • We report genomic and cDNA cloning of the mouse GalR1 galanin receptor and demonstrate that the coding sequence is uniquely divided into three exons encoding the N-terminal portion through the fifth transmebrane domain, the third intracellular loop, and the sixth transmembrane domain through the C-terminus [12].
  • This occurred in GAL-R1 -/-, GAL-R1 +/-, and +/+ wild-type controls, with no significant differences observed between genotypes [13].
  • Moreover, the increase in galanin binding sites seems to be caused by increased transcription or stabilization of the galanin receptor 1 (GalR1) gene, because there is a dramatic increase in mRNA levels following withdrawal in the LC [14].

Anatomical context of Galr1


Associations of Galr1 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Galr1

  • The elevated heat nociceptive threshold in the galanin over-expressing mice was reversed by intrathecal application of the putative galanin receptor antagonist M-35, galanin-(1-12)-pro-bradykinin-(2-9) [19].

Other interactions of Galr1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Galr1


  1. Hyperalgesia and increased neuropathic pain-like response in mice lacking galanin receptor 1 receptors. Blakeman, K.H., Hao, J.X., Xu, X.J., Jacoby, A.S., Shine, J., Crawley, J.N., Iismaa, T., Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z. Neuroscience (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Critical role for GALR1 galanin receptor in galanin regulation of neuroendocrine function and seizure activity. Jacoby, A.S., Hort, Y.J., Constantinescu, G., Shine, J., Iismaa, T.P. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Patterns of seizures, hippocampal injury and neurogenesis in three models of status epilepticus in galanin receptor type 1 (GalR1) knockout mice. Mazarati, A., Lu, X., Shinmei, S., Badie-Mahdavi, H., Bartfai, T. Neuroscience (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Analysis of the contribution of galanin receptors 1 and 2 to the central actions of galanin-like peptide. Krasnow, S.M., Hohmann, J.G., Gragerov, A., Clifton, D.K., Steiner, R.A. Neuroendocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Selective reduction in ventral hippocampal acetylcholine release in awake galanin-treated rats and galanin-overexpressing transgenic mice. Laplante, F., Crawley, J.N., Quirion, R. Regul. Pept. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Galanin receptor antagonists : a potential novel pharmacological treatment for mood disorders. Ogren, S.O., Kuteeva, E., Hökfelt, T., Kehr, J. CNS drugs. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Galanin can attenuate opiate reinforcement and withdrawal. Picciotto, M.R., Hawes, J.J., Brunzell, D.H., Zachariou, V. Neuropeptides (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Pathogenic Escherichia coli increase Cl- secretion from intestinal epithelia by upregulating galanin-1 receptor expression. Hecht, G., Marrero, J.A., Danilkovich, A., Matkowskyj, K.A., Savkovic, S.D., Koutsouris, A., Benya, R.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Enhanced hippocampal noradrenaline and serotonin release in galanin-overexpressing mice after repeated forced swimming test. Yoshitake, T., Wang, F.H., Kuteeva, E., Holmberg, K., Yamaguchi, M., Crawley, J.N., Steiner, R., Bartfai, T., Ogren, S.O., Hökfelt, T., Kehr, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Galanin GAL-R1 receptor null mutant mice display increased anxiety-like behavior specific to the elevated plus-maze. Holmes, A., Kinney, J.W., Wrenn, C.C., Li, Q., Yang, R.J., Ma, L., Vishwanath, J., Saavedra, M.C., Innerfield, C.E., Jacoby, A.S., Shine, J., Iismaa, T.P., Crawley, J.N. Neuropsychopharmacology (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Galanin receptor 1 gene expression is regulated by cyclic AMP through a CREB-dependent mechanism. Zachariou, V., Georgescu, D., Kansal, L., Merriam, P., Picciotto, M.R. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Genomic organization and functional characterization of the mouse GalR1 galanin receptor. Wang, S., He, C., Maguire, M.T., Clemmons, A.L., Burrier, R.E., Guzzi, M.F., Strader, C.D., Parker, E.M., Bayne, M.L. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Flexor reflex excitability in mice lacking galanin receptor galanin-R1. Grass, S., Jacoby, A.S., Iismaa, T.P., Crawley, J.N., Xu, X.J., Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z. Neurosci. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Upregulation of galanin binding sites and GalR1 mRNA levels in the mouse locus coeruleus following chronic morphine treatments and precipitated morphine withdrawal. Zachariou, V., Thome, J., Parikh, K., Picciotto, M.R. Neuropsychopharmacology (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Galanin receptor-1 knockout mice exhibit spontaneous epilepsy, abnormal EEGs and altered inhibition in the hippocampus. McColl, C.D., Jacoby, A.S., Shine, J., Iismaa, T.P., Bekkers, J.M. Neuropharmacology (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Anticonvulsant activity of a nonpeptide galanin receptor agonist. Saar, K., Mazarati, A.M., Mahlapuu, R., Hallnemo, G., Soomets, U., Kilk, K., Hellberg, S., Pooga, M., Tolf, B.R., Shi, T.S., Hökfelt, T., Wasterlain, C., Bartfai, T., Langel, U. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine colitis activates NF-kappaB and increases galanin-1 receptor expression. Marrero, J.A., Matkowskyj, K.A., Yung, K., Hecht, G., Benya, R.V. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Distribution and regulation of galanin receptor 1 messenger RNA in the forebrain of wild type and galanin-transgenic mice. Hohmann, J.G., Juréus, A., Teklemichael, D.N., Matsumoto, A.M., Clifton, D.K., Steiner, R.A. Neuroscience (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Mice over-expressing galanin have elevated heat nociceptive threshold. Blakeman, K.H., Holmberg, K., Hao, J.X., Xu, X.J., Kahl, U., Lendahl, U., Bartfai, T., Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z., Hökfelt, T. Neuroreport (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Phenotypic analysis of mice deficient in the type 2 galanin receptor (GALR2). Gottsch, M.L., Zeng, H., Hohmann, J.G., Weinshenker, D., Clifton, D.K., Steiner, R.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Ectopic galanin expression and normal galanin receptor 2 and galanin receptor 3 mRNA levels in the forebrain of galanin transgenic mice. He, B., Counts, S.E., Perez, S.E., Hohmann, J.G., Koprich, J.B., Lipton, J.W., Steiner, R.A., Crawley, J.N., Mufson, E.J. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Phenotypic assessment of galanin overexpressing and galanin receptor R1 knockout mice in the tail suspension test for depression-related behavior. Holmes, A., Li, Q., Koenig, E.A., Gold, E., Stephenson, D., Yang, R.J., Dreiling, J., Sullivan, T., Crawley, J.N. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. The galanin antagonist M35 has intrinsic agonistic activity in the dorsal root ganglion. Mahoney, S.A., Hosking, R., Wynick, D. Neuroreport (2003) [Pubmed]
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