The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Helper Viruses

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Helper Viruses


High impact information on Helper Viruses

  • Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are non-pathogenic, integrating DNA vectors in which all viral genes are removed and helper virus is completely eliminated [6].
  • The induction of erythroid bursts was not caused by the murine type C helper viruses used to pseudotype either Ha-MuSV or Ki-MuSV, or by media from cells carrying the Ki-MuSV and Ha-MuSV genomes [7].
  • During the course of these experiments, a transforming recombinant of bcr/abl was isolated which fuses gag determinants derived from helper virus to the NH2-terminus of the bcr/abl protein [8].
  • We suggest the name Fhe for the new gene controlling susceptibility to Friend helper virus erythroblastosis [9].
  • Leukemic spleen cells, 30-60 d after virus inoculation, expressed decreased amounts of ecotropic Friend murine leukemia helper virus gag- and env-encoded cell surface and intracellular proteins compared with leukemic cells tested 8-10 d after virus inoculation [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Helper Viruses

  • In contrast, in mice genetically resistant to the native helper virus of SFFV, the helper effect of LPS was optical when it was injected with SFFV and oil when given 5 days before or after the virus [11].
  • Each was transfected into TK- cells along with MLV helper virus, and TK+ colonies were obtained by selection in the presence of hypoxanthine, aminopterin, and thymidine (HAT) [12].
  • Synthetic peptide vaccines containing a single Th cell epitope identified in the gp70 envelope glycoprotein of Friend murine leukemia helper virus induced potent protective immunity against Friend virus infection [13].
  • Adeno-associated virus replication. The effect of L-canavanine or a helper virus mutation on accumulation of viral capsids and progeny single-stranded DNA [14].
  • Using a transfected defective interfering RNA which contains an IS and a reporter (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) gene and JHM2c as a helper virus, we demonstrated that subgenomic mRNAs transcribed from the defective interfering RNAs were extremely heterogeneous [15].

Biological context of Helper Viruses


Anatomical context of Helper Viruses


Gene context of Helper Viruses

  • Vectors were constructed encoding beta-galactosidase (LacZ), CD80 (B7.1), or CD154 (CD40L) and were packaged using either a standard helper virus (HSVlac, HSVB7.1, and HSVCD40L) or a helper virus-free method (hf-HSVlac, hf-HSVB7.1, and hf-HSVCD40L) [25].
  • Therefore, the amino acid sequence of the defective MAIDS virus p12gag region is not homologous to that of the helper virus and the Edv transcript because of the frameshift [26].
  • Uninfected NR6 cells or NR6 cells infected by helper virus alone can be used as controls for the EGF specificity of growth stimulation [27].
  • An increase in helper virus multiplicity gave an increase in beta-tubulin stimulation, but dl312 alone, even at a high multiplicity of infection, gave no induction, confirming the requirement for E1a. beta-Actin nuclear RNA was actively synthesized before infection, but it was not further stimulated by the virus [28].
  • All of the transformed cells were relatively resistant to the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-beta 1, compared to normal RLE cells and control cells infected with a helper virus [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Helper Viruses


  1. Molecular cloning of integrated simian sarcoma virus: genome organization of infectious DNA clones. Robbins, K.C., Devare, S.G., Aaronson, S.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Phorbol ester-induced growth arrest of murine myelomonocytic leukemic cells with virus-disrupted myb locus is not accompanied by decreased myc and myb expression. Shen-Ong, G.L., Holmes, K.L., Morse, H.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Cell transformation and tumor induction by Abelson murine leukemia virus in the absence of helper virus. Green, P.L., Kaehler, D.A., Risser, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Abnormalities in myelopoietic regulatory interactions with acidic isoferritins and lactoferrin in mice infected with Friend virus complex: association with altered expression of Ia antigens on effector and responding cells. Lu, L., Broxmeyer, H.E., Moore, M.A., Sheridan, A.P., Gentile, P. Blood (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. In situ expression of soluble B7-1 in the context of oncolytic herpes simplex virus induces potent antitumor immunity. Todo, T., Martuza, R.L., Dallman, M.J., Rabkin, S.D. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Long-term gene expression and phenotypic correction using adeno-associated virus vectors in the mammalian brain. Kaplitt, M.G., Leone, P., Samulski, R.J., Xiao, X., Pfaff, D.W., O'Malley, K.L., During, M.J. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Harvey and Kirsten sarcoma viruses promote the growth and differentiation of erythroid precursor cells in vitro. Hankins, W.D., Scolnick, E.M. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. The CML-specific P210 bcr/abl protein, unlike v-abl, does not transform NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Daley, G.Q., McLaughlin, J., Witte, O.N., Baltimore, D. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. A new gene that controls the type of leukemia induced by Friend murine leukemia virus. Silver, J.E., Fredrickson, T.N. J. Exp. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. New cell surface gp70 related to Friend mink cell focus-inducing virus is expressed on Friend virus-induced erythroleukemic spleen cells after elimination of ecotropic Friend virus gp70 in Rfv-3r/s mice. Britt, W.J., Collins, J.K., Chesebro, B. J. Exp. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides as helper factors for Friend spleen focus-forming virus in mice. Steeves, R.A., Grundke-Lqbal, I. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Adaptation of a retrovirus as a eucaryotic vector transmitting the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. Tabin, C.J., Hoffmann, J.W., Goff, S.P., Weinberg, R.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Immunization with a single T helper cell epitope abrogates Friend virus-induced early erythroid proliferation and prevents late leukemia development. Miyazawa, M., Fujisawa, R., Ishihara, C., Takei, Y.A., Shimizu, T., Uenishi, H., Yamagishi, H., Kuribayashi, K. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Adeno-associated virus replication. The effect of L-canavanine or a helper virus mutation on accumulation of viral capsids and progeny single-stranded DNA. Myers, M.W., Carter, B.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Unusual heterogeneity of leader-mRNA fusion in a murine coronavirus: implications for the mechanism of RNA transcription and recombination. Zhang, X., Lai, M.M. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. A transmissible retrovirus expressing human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT): gene transfer into cells obtained from humans deficient in HPRT. Miller, A.D., Jolly, D.J., Friedmann, T., Verma, I.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Influence of MHC genes on spontaneous recovery from Friend retrovirus-induced leukemia. Miyazawa, M., Nishio, J., Wehrly, K., Chesebro, B. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Spontaneous recovery from Friend retrovirus-induced leukemia. Mapping of the Rfv-2 gene in the Q/TL region of mouse MHC. Miyazawa, M., Nishio, J., Wehrly, K., David, C.S., Chesebro, B. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. A transient three-plasmid expression system for the production of high titer retroviral vectors. Soneoka, Y., Cannon, P.M., Ramsdale, E.E., Griffiths, J.C., Romano, G., Kingsman, S.M., Kingsman, A.J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Chimeric retroviral helper virus and picornavirus IRES sequence to eliminate DNA methylation for improved retroviral packaging cells. Young, W.B., Link, C.J. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Correction of mucopolysaccharidosis type I fibroblasts by retroviral-mediated transfer of the human alpha-L-iduronidase gene. Anson, D.S., Bielicki, J., Hopwood, J.J. Hum. Gene Ther. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Distinct helper virus requirements for Abelson murine leukemia virus-induced pre-B- and T-cell lymphomas. Poirier, Y., Jolicoeur, P. J. Virol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Monoclonal antibody detects a common surface antigen on two independently established murine Moloney sarcoma virus non-producer transformants. Weiland, E., Thiel, H.J. J. Gen. Virol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. A bipartite Tobacco mosaic virus-defective RNA (dRNA) system to study the role of the N-terminal methyl transferase domain in cell-to-cell movement of dRNAs. Knapp, E., Danyluk, G.M., Achor, D., Lewandowski, D.J. Virology (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Development of herpes simplex virus-1 amplicon-based immunotherapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Tolba, K.A., Bowers, W.J., Hilchey, S.P., Halterman, M.W., Howard, D.F., Giuliano, R.E., Federoff, H.J., Rosenblatt, J.D. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Possible origin of murine AIDS (MAIDS) virus: conversion of an endogenous retroviral p12gag sequence to a MAIDS-inducing sequence by frameshift mutations. Kubo, Y., Kakimi, K., Higo, K., Kobayashi, H., Ono, T., Iwama, Y., Kuribayashi, K., Hiai, H., Adachi, A., Ishimoto, A. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Retroviruses expressing different levels of the normal epidermal growth factor receptor: biological properties and new bioassay. Velu, T.J., Beguinot, L., Vass, W.C., Zhang, K., Pastan, I., Lowy, D.R. J. Cell. Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. HeLa cell beta-tubulin gene transcription is stimulated by adenovirus 5 in parallel with viral early genes by an E1a-dependent mechanism. Stein, R., Ziff, E.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Altered responsiveness of rat liver epithelial cells to transforming growth factor beta 1 following their transformation with v-raf. Huggett, A.C., Hampton, L.L., Ford, C.P., Wirth, P.J., Thorgeirsson, S.S. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Expression of human choriogonadotropin in monkey cells using a single simian virus 40 vector. Reddy, V.B., Beck, A.K., Garramone, A.J., Vellucci, V., Lustbader, J., Bernstine, E.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. Molecular cloning of avian myelocytomatosis virus (MC29) transforming sequences. Lautenberger, J.A., Schulz, R.A., Garon, C.F., Tsichlis, P.N., Papas, T.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  32. The capsid protein of satellite Panicum mosaic virus contributes to systemic invasion and interacts with its helper virus. Omarov, R.T., Qi, D., Scholthof, K.B. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities