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Gene Review

IDO2  -  indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: IDO-2, INDOL1, Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2, Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-like protein 1, Indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase-like protein 1
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Disease relevance of INDOL1


High impact information on INDOL1

  • To monitor trazodone effect, indol derivatives were measured in spinal fluid collected before and after treatment in 38 patients [3].
  • Mass spectra obtained using this technique show the chemical signature solely of monocyclic (benzene, phenols, etc.) and polycyclic (naphthalene, phenathrene, indol, etc.) aromatic species [4].
  • Three-dimensional HPLC analysis indicated that the water extract of this herb contains several different chemical compounds, including oxindole and indol alkaloids, which have been regarded as neuroprotective [5].
  • The tests for urea, nitrate reduction, and indol are negative [6].
  • Animals were treated for 4 weeks, after renal artery clipping, either with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (perindopril [PER], 0.76 mg/kg/day), or with an indol derivative diuretic with specific vascular properties (indapamide [IDP], 0.24 mg/kg/day) or with the combination of both drugs at the same doses as during monotherapy [7].

Biological context of INDOL1

  • The main metabolic pathways include hydroxylation and subsequent O-methylation of the indol ring, and oxidation as well as reduction of the C-21 hydroxyl function [8].
  • DSC, FT-IR and TLC data obtained from samples heated under the dynamic flow of either helium or nitrogen revealed formation of a related compound, 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-indolin-2-one, an indol-cyclic amide, as a result of an intramolecular cyclization reaction during the heating process [9].
  • The following metabolic capabilities were examined: fermentation of 16 different carbohydrates, hydrolysis of urea, gelatin and esculin, and production of indol and H2S [10].
  • The corresponding structure-activity relationship studies allowed us to conclude that the presence of a benzyloxy group, or a hydroxy or methoxy group, at position 5 of the indol ring enhanced these antioxidant characteristics, presenting a decreasing order of antioxidant activity of the primary > secondary > tertiary amines [11].

Anatomical context of INDOL1

  • Intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured in cultured explants of myenteric plexus neurones by using the fluorescent calcium indicator Indol in combination with patch-clamp techniques [12].
  • Chromatographic and biological detection for indol derivatives in host root exudates indicated the presence of beta-indolacetic acid and indol-3-carbonic acid [13].
  • Melatonin, a non-polar indol, present in CSF could enter fibrous astrocytes and could generate corpora [14].

Associations of INDOL1 with chemical compounds

  • RESULTS: The fluorescent free acid forms of fura2, indol and fluo3 did not accumulate in MDR lines unless a chemosensitizer such as cyclosporin A, R(+)verapamil, quinidine, or progesterone was included during loading to prevent the cells from extruding the AM forms of the dyes before they could be hydrolyzed [15].
  • The decay components were sensitive to the ionization state of groups neighboring the indol ring, and pK values for the equilibrium between protonated and deprotonated species were obtained from the preexponential factor of the lifetime components [16].
  • For the stobadine alone, the corresponding radical was formed by removing the H* from the NH group of indol, while in the case of DHS we removed the CH3* from the nitrogen in pyridine ring [17].
  • Numerous contaminant peaks appeared on the chromatograms and some of them were identified as 5-hydroxytryptophan, indol aldehyde, indol, etc; from the retention time of authentic compounds [18].
  • A presumptive identification of these species can be made on the basis of cellular morphology, susceptibility to novobiocin, characterization of metabolic end products, fermentation of glucose and lactose, and production of indol [19].
  • Like IDO, IDO2 catabolizes tryptophan, triggers phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2alpha, and (reported here for the first time) mobilizes translation of LIP, an inhibitory isoform of the immune regulatory transcription factor NF-IL6 [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of INDOL1


  1. Bacteremia due to Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens. Report of a case. Southern, P.M. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. An economic and rapid diagnostic procedure for the detection of salmonella/shigella using the polyvalent salmonella phage O-1. Fey, H., Bürgi, E., Margadant, A., Boller, E. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Erste Abteilung Originale. Reihe A: Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Parasitologie. (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Failure of central nervous system serotonin blockage to influence outcome in acute cerebral infarction. A double blind randomized trial. Ramirez-Lessepas, M., Patrick, B.K., Snyder, B.D., Lakatua, D.J. Stroke (1986) [Pubmed]
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  5. Uncaria rhynchophylla, a Chinese medicinal herb, has potent antiaggregation effects on Alzheimer's beta-amyloid proteins. Fujiwara, H., Iwasaki, K., Furukawa, K., Seki, T., He, M., Maruyama, M., Tomita, N., Kudo, Y., Higuchi, M., Saido, T.C., Maeda, S., Takashima, A., Hara, M., Ohizumi, Y., Arai, H. J. Neurosci. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. A previously undescribed gram-negative bacillus causing septicemia and meningitis. Bobo, R.A., Newton, E.J. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  7. Coronary microvasculature alteration in hypertensive rats. Effect of treatment with a diuretic and an ACE inhibitor. Levy, B.I., Duriez, M., Samuel, J.L. Am. J. Hypertens. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Fatal poisoning with detajmium: identification of detajmium and its metabolites and artifacts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography. Tenczer, J., Lappenberg-Pelzer, M., Schneider, V., Demme, U., Köppel, C. J. Chromatogr. B, Biomed. Appl. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Thermal behaviour of diclofenac sodium: decomposition and melting characteristics. Tudja, P., Khan, M.Z., Mestrović, E., Horvat, M., Golja, P. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Biochemical characterization of nine oral small-sized spirochete strains containing one endoflagellum from each cell-end. Fiehn, N.E. Acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica. Section B, Microbiology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Indolalkylamines derivatives as antioxidant and neuroprotective agents in an experimental model of Parkinson's disease. Sanz, E., Romera, M., Bellik, L., Marco, J.I., Unzeta, M. Med. Sci. Monit. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Intracellular calcium changes associated with cholinergic nicotinic receptor activation in cultured myenteric plexus neurones. Trouslard, J., Mirsky, R., Jessen, K.R., Burnstock, G., Brown, D.A. Brain Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Fusarium wilt of Prunus armeniaca seedlings. Afifi, A.F. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Zweite naturwissenschaftliche Abt.: Allgemeine, landwirtschaftliche und technische Mikrobiologie. (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. The circulation and function of cerebrospinal fluid. Maurizi, C.P. Med. Hypotheses (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Fluorescence methods to assess multidrug resistance in individual cells. Nelson, E.J., Zinkin, N.T., Hinkle, P.M. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Tryptophan as a probe for acid-base equilibria in peptides. Marquezin, C.A., Hirata, I.Y., Juliano, L., Ito, A.S. Biopolymers (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Theoretical study of the reactivity properties of two forms of stobadine. Májeková, M., Májek, P., Mach, P. Life Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of contaminants in EMS-associated L-tryptophan samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. Toyo'oka, T., Yamazaki, T., Tanimoto, T., Sato, K., Sato, M., Toyoda, M., Ishibashi, M., Yoshihira, K., Uchiyama, M. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. The classification and identification of the anaerobic gram-positive cocci. Hofstad, T. Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases. Supplementum. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Novel tryptophan catabolic enzyme IDO2 is the preferred biochemical target of the antitumor indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitory compound D-1-methyl-tryptophan. Metz, R., Duhadaway, J.B., Kamasani, U., Laury-Kleintop, L., Muller, A.J., Prendergast, G.C. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization to detect cellular RNA by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Bauman, J.G., Bayer, J.A., van Dekken, H. Journal of microscopy. (1990) [Pubmed]
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