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Gene Review

Prl3b1  -  prolactin family 3, subfamily b, member 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 2, Csh2, PL, PL-II, Pl-2, ...
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Disease relevance of Prl3b1

  • Both recombinant Rcho-1 PL-I and PL-II proteins significantly stimulated the proliferation of lactogen-dependent rat Nb2 lymphoma cells and mouse mammary epithelial cells [1].
  • PRL and placental lactogen (PL) stimulate beta-cell proliferation and insulin gene transcription in isolated islets and rat insulinoma cells, but the roles of the lactogenic hormones in islet development and insulin production in vivo remain unclear [2].
  • PE(-/-) mice, ELP(-/-) mice, and mice missing both P- and L-selectins (PL(-/-)) show drastic reductions in leukocyte rolling and in extravasation of neutrophils in thioglycollate-induced peritonitis [3].
  • The prolactin-like effect of hGH in these mice probably induced female sterility, and milk could therefore not be obtained [4].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine whether irradiation-induced inflammatory cytokine levels influenced the recovery of tumors following single fraction irradiation, mice with orthotopic Lewis Lung Carcinoma (3LL) tumors received MnSOD-PL treatment 24 hours after tumor implantation and 24 hours prior to irradiation [5].

High impact information on Prl3b1


Chemical compound and disease context of Prl3b1

  • To determine whether a slowly proliferating population of cells in the lung was responsible for initiation of fibrosis and was altered by MnSOD-PL therapy, 20 Gy total lung-irradiated mice were examined at serial time points for bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake in sites of cell division [10].

Biological context of Prl3b1

  • The molecule had 77% nucleotide sequence homology with mouse proliferin-related protein (mPRP) and somewhat less homology (approximately 60%) with hamster, rat, and mouse PRL or placental lactogens (PL) [11].
  • In humans a five-gene cluster on chromosome 17 contains two growth hormone (GH) and three placental lactogen (PL) genes [12].
  • A complementary DNA (cDNA) library to differentiated Rcho-1 trophoblast cells was constructed and screened with probes to detect PL-I and PL-II [1].
  • Immunoreactive PL-II-producing giant cells were detected first on Day 10 of gestation, continuing on Day 11 of gestation [13].
  • The two new clones show 62 and 39% overall homology with each other at the levels of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. bPLP-I, bPLP-II, placental lactogens, prolactins (PRLs), and other prolactin-like proteins isolated from cow, mouse, and rat share 7 common amino acid residues [14].

Anatomical context of Prl3b1


Associations of Prl3b1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Prl3b1


Regulatory relationships of Prl3b1


Other interactions of Prl3b1

  • Individual cells contained both PLF and placental lactogen II [26].
  • Additionally, both recombinant Rcho-1 PL-I and PL-II proteins are biologically active [1].
  • Interestingly, the effects of PL on the GE appear to require the absence of PR and prior exposure to IFN tau [27].
  • In eggs collected at the pronuclear stage and cultured to the late two-cell stage in the presence of alpha-amanitin, the matrix morphology was altered for Pl1 and Pl2. alpha-Amanitin had no affect on the distribution of P1 or lamin B antigens [28].
  • Saponin effects of prolactin-like stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity in mouse mammary gland explants [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Prl3b1


  1. Rcho-1 trophoblast cell placental lactogens: complementary deoxyribonucleic acids, heterologous expression, and biological activities. Dai, G., Imagawa, W., Liu, B., Szpirer, C., Levan, G., Kwok, S.C., Soares, M.J. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Targeted deletion of the PRL receptor: effects on islet development, insulin production, and glucose tolerance. Freemark, M., Avril, I., Fleenor, D., Driscoll, P., Petro, A., Opara, E., Kendall, W., Oden, J., Bridges, S., Binart, N., Breant, B., Kelly, P.A. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Multiple, targeted deficiencies in selectins reveal a predominant role for P-selectin in leukocyte recruitment. Robinson, S.D., Frenette, P.S., Rayburn, H., Cummiskey, M., Ullman-Culleré, M., Wagner, D.D., Hynes, R.O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. High level production of human growth hormone in the milk of transgenic mice: the upstream region of the rabbit whey acidic protein (WAP) gene targets transgene expression to the mammary gland. Devinoy, E., Thépot, D., Stinnakre, M.G., Fontaine, M.L., Grabowski, H., Puissant, C., Pavirani, A., Houdebine, L.M. Transgenic Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid/liposome (MnSOD-PL) intratracheal gene therapy reduction of irradiation-induced inflammatory cytokines does not protect orthotopic Lewis lung carcinomas. Guo, H., Epperly, M.W., Bernarding, M., Nie, S., Gretton, J., Jefferson, M., Greenberger, J.S. In Vivo (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Interleukin 6 inhibits mouse placental lactogen II but not mouse placental lactogen I secretion in vitro. Yamaguchi, M., Ogren, L., Southard, J.N., Kurachi, H., Miyake, A., Talamantes, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Placental-specific expression from the mouse placental lactogen II gene promoter. Shida, M.M., Jackson-Grusby, L.L., Ross, S.R., Linzer, D.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Prolactin synthesized and secreted by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: an autocrine growth factor for lymphoproliferation. Sabharwal, P., Glaser, R., Lafuse, W., Varma, S., Liu, Q., Arkins, S., Kooijman, R., Kutz, L., Kelley, K.W., Malarkey, W.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Epidermal growth factor stimulates mouse placental lactogen I but inhibits mouse placental lactogen II secretion in vitro. Yamaguchi, M., Ogren, L., Endo, H., Thordarson, G., Kensinger, R., Talamantes, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Pulmonary irradiation-induced expression of VCAM-I and ICAM-I is decreased by manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid/liposome (MnSOD-PL) gene therapy. Epperly, M.W., Sikora, C.A., DeFilippi, S.J., Gretton, J.E., Bar-Sagi, D., Archer, H., Carlos, T., Guo, H., Greenberger, J.S. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification, characterization, and expression of a new prolactin-like molecule in the hamster placenta. Barnes, S.W., Renegar, R.H. Biol. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparative aspects of placental lactogens: structure and function. Forsyth, I.A. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Localization of placental lactogen-I in trophoblast giant cells of the mouse placenta. Faria, T.N., Ogren, L., Talamantes, F., Linzer, D.I., Soares, M.J. Biol. Reprod. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of new members of the prolactin growth hormone gene family in bovine placenta. Isolation and characterization of two prolactin-like cDNA clones. Yamakawa, M., Tanaka, M., Koyama, M., Kagesato, Y., Watahiki, M., Yamamoto, M., Nakashima, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of a prolactin-like factor in preneoplastic and neoplastic mouse mammary gland and cells. Jahnke, G.D., Trempus, C.S., Kari, F.W., DiAugustine, R.P. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of the production of a prolactin-like protein (MRP/PLF) in 3T3 cells and in the mouse placenta. Nilsen-Hamilton, M., Jang, Y.J., Alvarez-Azaustre, E., Hamilton, R.T. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Immunocytochemical detection of prolactin or prolactin-like immunoreactivity in epididymis of mature male mouse. Brumlow, W.B., Adams, C.S. Histochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of prolactin-like proteins synthesized by normal murine lymphocytes. Montgomery, D.W., LeFevre, J.A., Ulrich, E.D., Adamson, C.R., Zukoski, C.F. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. The lipolytic effects of mouse placental lactogen II, mouse prolactin, and mouse growth hormone on adipose tissue from virgin and pregnant mice. Fielder, P.J., Talamantes, F. Endocrinology (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Co-localization of placental lactogen-I, placental lactogen-II, and proliferin in the mouse placenta at midpregnancy. Yamaguchi, M., Ogren, L., Endo, H., Soares, M.J., Talamantes, F. Biol. Reprod. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. The influence of thyroxine, growth hormone and prolactin alone and in combination on the production of prolactin-like activity by splenocytes from Snell dwarf mice. Gala, R.R. Life Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Phospholipases and the effect of prolactin on uridine incorporation into RNA in mammary gland explants of mice. Rillema, J.A., Anderson, L.D. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. A mutant lactogenic hormone binds, but does not activate, the prolactin receptor. Davis, J.A., Linzer, D.I. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Modulation of mouse placental lactogen-I secretion in vitro: effects of progesterone and mouse placental lactogen-II. Yamaguchi, M., Endo, H., Thordarson, G., Ogren, L., Talamantes, F. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Mutational analysis of a lactogenic hormone reveals a role for lactogen-specific amino acid residues in receptor binding and mitogenic activity. Davis, J.A., Linzer, D.I. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Trophoblastic giant cells of the mouse placenta as the site of proliferin synthesis. Lee, S.J., Talamantes, F., Wilder, E., Linzer, D.I., Nathans, D. Endocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Biology of progesterone action during pregnancy recognition and maintenance of pregnancy. Spencer, T.E., Bazer, F.W. Front. Biosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Construction of the nuclear matrix at the transition from maternal to zygotic control of development in the mouse: an immunocytochemical study. Prather, R.S., Schatten, G. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Saponin effects of prolactin-like stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity in mouse mammary gland explants. Koduri, P.B., Rillema, J.A. Horm. Metab. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Lactogenic and growth hormone-like activities in pregnancy determined by radioreceptor assays. Kelly, P.A., Tsushima, T., Shiu, R.P., Friesen, H.G. Endocrinology (1976) [Pubmed]
  31. The development and characterization of a homologous radioimmunoassay for mouse placental lactogen. Soares, M.J., Colosi, P., Talamantes, F. Endocrinology (1982) [Pubmed]
  32. Establishment of feeder-independent cloned caprine trophoblast cell line which expresses placental lactogen and interferon tau. Miyazaki, H., Imai, M., Hirayama, T., Saburi, S., Tanaka, M., Maruyama, M., Matsuo, C., Meguro, H., Nishibashi, K., Inoue, F., Djiane, J., Gertler, A., Tachi, S., Imakawa, K., Tachi, C. Placenta (2002) [Pubmed]
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