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Gene Review

DMTN  -  dematin actin binding protein

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: DMT, Dematin, Dematin actin-binding protein, EPB49, Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.9
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Disease relevance of EPB49


Psychiatry related information on EPB49

  • The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and a continuous performance test: the Immediate and Delayed Memory Task (IMT/DMT) were also collected [5].
  • These findings contrast with the immediate hallucinogenic effects of an injection of DMT, and suggest that the extracerebral production of DMT (as measured by its urinary excretion) does not provoke the experience of hallucinations in psychotic patients [6].
  • The two questionnaires used for assessing defence correlated significantly, while a scale for social desirability showed no correlation with DMT or the two defence questionnaires [7].
  • Results were obtained by analysis of: (1) video tapes from the daily meetings; (2) questionnaires on group behavior and communication; (3) post-isolation interviews; and (4) personality inventories (DMT, Helmreich Test, MMPI) [8].
  • One promising behavioral measure, however, is a variant of the continuous performance test, the Immediate Memory Test/Delayed Memory Test (IMT/DMT) [9].

High impact information on EPB49

  • The residues critical for contacting actin are conserved throughout the beta-thymosin family and in addition to this we identify a similar pattern in the C-terminal headpiece of villin and dematin [10].
  • This protein, p55, is copurified during the isolation of dematin, an actin-bundling protein of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton [11].
  • One EKLF target gene, dematin, which encodes an erythrocyte cytoskeletal protein (band 4.9), contains several phylogenetically conserved consensus CACC motifs predicted to bind EKLF [12].
  • Our results suggest that phosphorylation of the dematin headpiece acts as a conformational switch within this headpiece domain [13].
  • Dematin (band 4.9) is found in the junctional complex of the spectrin cytoskeleton that supports the erythrocyte cell membrane [13].

Biological context of EPB49

  • Actin binding measurements using recombinant fusion proteins revealed that each monomer of dematin contains two F-actin binding sites: one in the headpiece domain and the other in the undefined N-terminal domain [1].
  • Using somatic cell hybrid panels and fluorescence in situ hybridization, the dematin gene was localized on the short arm of chromosome 8 [1].
  • One, the ABC superfamily, includes members that use ATP hydrolysis to drive drug efflux, but the MFS, RND, MATE and DMT superfamilies include members that are secondary carriers, functioning by drug:H(+)or drug:Na(+)antiport mechanisms [14].
  • Our results revealed that glutathione (10.0, 5.0, 2.5, 1.0, and 0.5 mm) and NAC (10.0, 5.0, and 2.5 mm) significantly (p < 0.02) reduced oxidative DNA damage produced by VL-irradiated CQ/DMT [15].
  • In this study, oxidative DNA damage produced by VL-irradiated CQ/DMT, in the presence and absence of antioxidants (glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), mannitol, vitamin C, and vitamin E), was measured by the conversion of PhiX-174 RF I supercoiled (SC) double-stranded plasmid DNA into open and linear forms [15].

Anatomical context of EPB49


Associations of EPB49 with chemical compounds

  • 2. The insertion sequence also includes a cysteine residue which may explain the formation of sulfhydryl-linked trimers of dematin [1].
  • Inclusion of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) (3mM), catalase (1000 U/ml) and dimethylthiourea (DMT, 5mM), and also SOD (500 U/ml) attenuated the sodium butyrate-induced ROS production in SAS cells [19].
  • The final removal of acid-labile DMT and MTHP groups could be effected by 1 h treatment with 80% acetic acid of the otherwise unprotected DNA-RNA hybrids [20].
  • The results with all tested acetal derivatives (Fpmp, Ctmp, Cee, THP) were much less successful due to some accompanying cleavage of internucleotidic H-phosphonate functions during removal of 5'-O-protection (DMT) [21].
  • Metergoline pretreatment shifted the LSD and DMT dose-response curves for pausing to the right by a factor of 2--3, but shifted the DOM and mescaline dose-response patterns to a much greater extent [22].

Other interactions of EPB49

  • In solution, dematin is a trimeric protein containing two subunits of 48 kDa and one subunit of 52 kDa [16].
  • Cloning of human erythroid dematin reveals another member of the villin family [23].
  • Dematin is a member of the larger class of cytoskeleton-associated proteins that contain a modular "headpiece" domain at their extreme C termini [13].
  • The mechanical properties of human erythrocyte membrane are largely regulated by submembranous protein skeleton whose principal components are alpha- and beta-spectrin, actin, protein 4.1, adducin, and dematin [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of EPB49

  • The excretion of N,N,-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) has been measured in longitudinal studies of five patients with schizophrenic illnesses and in four patients with rapidly or slowly cycling manic-depressive illness [6].
  • Coupling efficiencies were 94-98% at the point of introduction of the xeno-2'-deoxynucleoside, and in all cases the mixtures of the two diastereomeric oligomers (DMT-off stage) were easily separated by HPLC [25].
  • LSD and DMT reduced the alpha activity of the EEG and enhanced the amplitude of the low-frequency waves [26].
  • By thin layer chromatography the product was identified as having the same Rf as authentic DMT [27].
  • In addition to detailed clinical examination and resting electro-cardiogram, Master's two step exercise test (DMT) was also carried out to find out the occult and asymptomatic cardiac involvement [28].


  1. Isoform cloning, actin binding, and chromosomal localization of human erythroid dematin, a member of the villin superfamily. Azim, A.C., Knoll, J.H., Beggs, A.H., Chishti, A.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Relationship of CNS tryptaminergic processes and the action of LSD-like hallucinogens. Martin, W.R., Sloan, J.W. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Alternative splicing and structure of the human erythroid dematin gene. Kim, A.C., Azim, A.C., Chishti, A.H. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Transsexualism--general outcome and prognostic factors: a five-year follow-up study of nineteen transsexuals in the process of changing sex. Bodlund, O., Kullgren, G. Archives of sexual behavior. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Reduced anterior corpus callosum white matter integrity is related to increased impulsivity and reduced discriminability in cocaine-dependent subjects: diffusion tensor imaging. Moeller, F.G., Hasan, K.M., Steinberg, J.L., Kramer, L.A., Dougherty, D.M., Santos, R.M., Valdes, I., Swann, A.C., Barratt, E.S., Narayana, P.A. Neuropsychopharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. A longitudinal study of urinary excretion of N,N,-dimethyltryptamine in psychotic patients. Checkley, S.A., Murray, R.M., Oon, M.C., Rodnight, R., Birley, J.L. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Tachistoscopic and questionnaire methods for the measurement of psychological defences. Olff, M., Godaert, G.L., Brosschot, J.F., Weiss, K.E., Ursin, H. Scandinavian journal of psychology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. European isolation and confinement study. Group functioning and communication. Bergan, T., Sandal, G., Warncke, M., Ursin, H., Vaernes, R.J. Adv. Space Biol. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Measuring impulsivity in adolescents with serious substance and conduct problems. Thompson, L.L., Whitmore, E.A., Raymond, K.M., Crowley, T.J. Assessment. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. The actin binding site of thymosin beta 4 mapped by mutational analysis. Van Troys, M., Dewitte, D., Goethals, M., Carlier, M.F., Vandekerckhove, J., Ampe, C. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular identification of a major palmitoylated erythrocyte membrane protein containing the src homology 3 motif. Ruff, P., Speicher, D.W., Husain-Chishti, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. A global role for EKLF in definitive and primitive erythropoiesis. Hodge, D., Coghill, E., Keys, J., Maguire, T., Hartmann, B., McDowall, A., Weiss, M., Grimmond, S., Perkins, A. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. The NMR structure of dematin headpiece reveals a dynamic loop that is conformationally altered upon phosphorylation at a distal site. Frank, B.S., Vardar, D., Chishti, A.H., McKnight, C.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Phylogeny of multidrug transporters. Saier, M.H., Paulsen, I.T. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. The effect of antioxidants on oxidative DNA damage induced by visible-light-irradiated camphorquinone/N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine. Winter, K., Pagoria, D., Geurtsen, W. Biomaterials (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Human erythrocyte dematin and protein 4.2 (pallidin) are ATP binding proteins. Azim, A.C., Marfatia, S.M., Korsgren, C., Dotimas, E., Cohen, C.M., Chishti, A.H. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Altered consciousness states and endogenous psychoses: a common molecular pathway? Ciprian-Ollivier, J., Cetkovich-Bakmas, M.G. Schizophr. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. The effect of camphorquinone (CQ) and CQ-related photosensitizers on the generation of reactive oxygen species and the production of oxidative DNA damage. Pagoria, D., Lee, A., Geurtsen, W. Biomaterials (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Toxic and metabolic effect of sodium butyrate on SAS tongue cancer cells: role of cell cycle deregulation and redox changes. Jeng, J.H., Kuo, M.Y., Lee, P.H., Wang, Y.J., Lee, M.Y., Lee, J.J., Lin, B.R., Tai, T.F., Chang, M.C. Toxicology (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Preparation of covalently linked DNA-RNA hybrids and arabinocytidine containing DNA fragments. de Vroom, E., Roelen, H.C., Saris, C.P., Budding, T.N., van der Marel, G.A., van Boom, J.H. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Evaluation of 2'-hydroxyl protection in RNA-synthesis using the H-phosphonate approach. Rozners, E., Westman, E., Strömberg, R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Neurotransmitter basis of the behavioral effects of hallucinogens. Rech, R.H., Commissaris, R.L. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Cloning of human erythroid dematin reveals another member of the villin family. Rana, A.P., Ruff, P., Maalouf, G.J., Speicher, D.W., Chishti, A.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Modulation of erythrocyte membrane mechanical function by beta-spectrin phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Manno, S., Takakuwa, Y., Nagao, K., Mohandas, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Efficient synthesis of the benzo[a]pyrene metabolic adducts of 2'-deoxyguanosine and 2'-deoxyadenosine and their direct incorporation into DNA. Johnson, F., Bonala, R., Tawde, D., Torres, M.C., Iden, C.R. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Transcallosally evoked potentials and the EEG in the decerebrate dog: actions of tryptaminergic, dopaminergic and adrenergic agonists. Pickworth, W.B., Sharpe, L.G., Martin, W.R. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. (1977) [Pubmed]
  27. Search for new treatment approaches in schizophrenia: in vitro studies of potential N-methyltransferase inhibitors. Domino, E.F. Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de thérapie. (1976) [Pubmed]
  28. Cardiovascular system in leprosy. Singh, I.P., Mehta, S.R., Gupta, C.M., Bhate, R.D. Indian journal of leprosy. (1986) [Pubmed]
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