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Gene Review

Sms  -  spermine synthase

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AI427066, Gy, SPMSY, Spermidine aminopropyltransferase, Spermine synthase, ...
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Disease relevance of Sms

  • In summary, the Gy mutation is associated with a recessively expressed mutation of the spermine synthase gene, leading to spermine deficiency, and a dominantly expressed mutation of the Pex gene, leading to hypophosphatemia [1].
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the hypothesis that modulation of the function of activated macrophages is one of the mechanisms of the clinically observed anti-inflammatory and analgesic efficacy of low-dose radiotherapy in the treatment of a variety of painful joint diseases with total doses between 1 and 6 Gy [2].

High impact information on Sms


Biological context of Sms


Anatomical context of Sms


Associations of Sms with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Sms


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sms

  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence analysis of D2XRII murine bone marrow stromal cells showed that gamma irradiation with doses of 2-50 Gy from (137)Cs stimulated expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2, also known as iNos) [21].
  • The thorax of BALBc mice were exposed to 14 Gy radiation (experimental) or no radiation (control) and killed after at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours; 3, 15, and 30 days; and 3 and 6 months after treatment [22].


  1. Partial deletion of both the spermine synthase gene and the Pex gene in the X-linked hypophosphatemic, gyro (Gy) mouse. Meyer, R.A., Henley, C.M., Meyer, M.H., Morgan, P.L., McDonald, A.G., Mills, C., Price, D.K. Genomics (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory activity of low-dose radiation therapy. Hildebrandt, G., Seed, M.P., Freemantle, C.N., Alam, C.A., Colville-Nash, P.R., Trott, K.R. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Inhibition by uridine but not thymidine of p53-dependent intestinal apoptosis initiated by 5-fluorouracil: evidence for the involvement of RNA perturbation. Pritchard, D.M., Watson, A.J., Potten, C.S., Jackman, A.L., Hickman, J.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Protein kinase B/Akt-dependent phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in irradiated vascular endothelium. Tan, J., Geng, L., Yazlovitskaya, E.M., Hallahan, D.E. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparative antitumor properties in rodents of irreversible inhibitors of L-ornithine decarboxylase, used as such or as prodrugs. Claverie, N., Mamont, P.S. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Spermine synthesis is required for normal viability, growth, and fertility in the mouse. Wang, X., Ikeguchi, Y., McCloskey, D.E., Nelson, P., Pegg, A.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Increased longevity of hematopoiesis in continuous bone marrow cultures derived from NOS1 (nNOS, mtNOS) homozygous recombinant negative mice correlates with radioresistance of hematopoietic and marrow stromal cells. Epperly, M.W., Cao, S., Zhang, X., Franicola, D., Shen, H., Greenberger, E.E., Epperly, L.D., Greenberger, J.S. Exp. Hematol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Inhibition of cell growth by combination of alpha-difluoromethylornithine and an inhibitor of spermine synthase. He, Y., Shimogori, T., Kashiwagi, K., Shirahata, A., Igarashi, K. J. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Spermine deficiency resulting from targeted disruption of the spermine synthase gene in embryonic stem cells leads to enhanced sensitivity to antiproliferative drugs. Korhonen, V.P., Niiranen, K., Halmekytö, M., Pietilä, M., Diegelman, P., Parkkinen, J.J., Eloranta, T., Porter, C.W., Alhonen, L., Jänne, J. Mol. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of spermine synthase deficiency on polyamine biosynthesis and content in mice and embryonic fibroblasts, and the sensitivity of fibroblasts to 1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea. Mackintosh, C.A., Pegg, A.E. Biochem. J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Modulation of potassium channels in the hearts of transgenic and mutant mice with altered polyamine biosynthesis. Lopatin, A.N., Shantz, L.M., Mackintosh, C.A., Nichols, C.G., Pegg, A.E. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Enhancement of NO production from resident peritoneal macrophages by in vitro gamma-irradiation and its relationship to reactive oxygen intermediates. Ibuki, Y., Goto, R. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of spermine synthase on the sensitivity of cells to anti-tumour agents. Ikeguchi, Y., Mackintosh, C.A., McCloskey, D.E., Pegg, A.E. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of S-adenosyl-1,12-diamino-3-thio-9-azadodecane, a multisubstrate adduct inhibitor of spermine synthase, on polyamine metabolism in mammalian cells. Pegg, A.E., Wechter, R., Poulin, R., Woster, P.M., Coward, J.K. Biochemistry (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Role of unsaturated derivatives of spermidine as substrates for spermine synthase and in supporting growth of SV-3T3 cells. Pegg, A.E., Nagarajan, S., Naficy, S., Ganem, B. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Polyamines and their biosynthetic enzymes in Ehrlich ascites-carcinoma cells. Modification of tumour polyamine pattern by diamines. Kallio, A., Pösö, H., Guha, S.K., Jänne, J. Biochem. J. (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. 17beta-Oestradiol treatment modulates nitric oxide synthase activity in MDA231 tumour with implications on growth and radiation response. Chinje, E.C., Williams, K.J., Telfer, B.A., Wood, P.J., van der Kogel, A.J., Stratford, I.J. Br. J. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Growth of mammalian cells in the absence of the accumulation of spermine. Pegg, A.E., Coward, J.K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of polyamine depletion on caspase activation: a study with spermine synthase-deficient cells. Stefanelli, C., Pignatti, C., Tantini, B., Fattori, M., Stanic, I., Mackintosh, C.A., Flamigni, F., Guarnieri, C., Caldarera, C.M., Pegg, A.E. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Chain-fluorinated polyamines as tumor markers--I. In vivo transformation of 2,2-difluoroputrescine into 6,6-difluorospermidine and 6,6-difluorospermine. Sarhan, S., Knodgen, B., Gerhart, F., Seiler, N. Int. J. Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Activation of the nitric oxide synthase 2 pathway in the response of bone marrow stromal cells to high doses of ionizing radiation. Gorbunov, N.V., Pogue-Geile, K.L., Epperly, M.W., Bigbee, W.L., Draviam, R., Day, B.W., Wald, N., Watkins, S.C., Greenberger, J.S. Radiat. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine in mice with radiation-induced lung damage. Giaid, A., Lehnert, S.M., Chehayeb, B., Chehayeb, D., Kaplan, I., Shenouda, G. Am. J. Clin. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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