The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

FLOT2  -  flotillin 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ECS-1, ECS1, ESA, ESA1, Epidermal surface antigen, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of FLOT2

  • Flot-2 protein and mRNA were increased in tumorigenic and metastatic melanoma cell lines in vitro, and the immunostaining intensity increased substantially across a tissue array of melanocytic lesions [1].
  • Flot-2 binds to PAR-1, a known upstream mediator of major signal transduction pathways implicated in cell growth and metastasis, and may thereby influence tumor progression [1].
  • The ESA gene is conserved in all mammalian species examined and has been localized to human chromosome 17 (M17S1) in the same region as the gene for von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis [2].
  • Reggie-1 and reggie-2 are homologous to 35x10(3) Mr ESA (human epidermal surface antigen) but are here identified as neuronal surface proteins, present on newly differentiated ganglion cells at the retinal margin and which are reexpressed in mature ganglion cells upon injury and during axonal regeneration [3].
  • ECS-1 shares characteristics with human pemphigus antibodies [4].

High impact information on FLOT2


Biological context of FLOT2

  • Flotillin 2 (flot-2) is a highly conserved protein isolated from caveolae/lipid raft domains that tether growth factor receptors linked to signal transduction pathways [1].
  • Role of EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of reggie-1/flotillin-2 in cell spreading and signaling to the actin cytoskeleton [7].
  • Among acetyltransferases, the MYST family enzyme Esa1p is distinguished for its essential function and contribution to transcriptional activation and DNA double-stranded break repair [8].
  • Here we report that Esa1p also plays a key role in silencing RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-transcribed genes at telomeres and within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of the nucleolus [8].
  • Esa1p is enriched within the rDNA, as is the NAD-dependent protein deacetylase Sir2p, and the acetylation levels of key Esa1p histone targets are reduced in the rDNA in esa1 mutants [8].

Anatomical context of FLOT2


Associations of FLOT2 with chemical compounds

  • The ESA protein appears to consist of an NH2-terminal hydrophobic region with mixed alpha and beta structure followed by a more hydrophilic COOH-terminal region which is very rich in alpha-helix [2].
  • The relative potencies of GC drugs as inhibitors of IL-1beta (10 pM)-stimulated ESAP-gene activation were fluticasone> beclomethasone>dexamethasone, with IC50 values of 0.13, 1.1 and 2.7 nM respectively [12].
  • To investigate possible mechanisms for steroid inhibition, a reporter gene (ESAP) was constructed, comprising the cytokine responsive region of the E-selectin gene (nt -383 to +81) coupled to alkaline phosphatase (AP) [12].
  • We therefore established a staining protocol using beta-mercaptoethanol as thiol binding site competitor resulting in a specific staining of tetracysteine-tagged reggie-1/flotillin-2 of adequate signal to noise ratio, so that the more toxic and inconvenient ethanedithiol could be avoided [13].
  • Based on co-association of signalling molecules, such as Src kinases and phosphatases, we propose that the polycystin multiprotein complex is embedded in a cholesterol-containing signalling microdomain specified by flotillin-2, which is distinct from classical light-buoyant-density, detergent-resistant domains [14].

Other interactions of FLOT2

  • In uncapacitated sperm, 51% of the CD59, 41% of the GM1, and 90% of the flotillin-2 were found in the raft fraction [15].
  • We demonstrate for the first time by biochemical methods the existence of sphingolipid-cholesterol-enriched domains in human and dog thyroid follicular cells that contain caveolin, flotillin-2, and the insulin receptor [16].
  • Flotillin-2, fli-1, pim-3 and ezrin have previously been reported to be associated with tumor metastasis and progression [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FLOT2


  1. Up-regulation of Flotillin-2 is associated with melanoma progression and modulates expression of the thrombin receptor protease activated receptor 1. Hazarika, P., McCarty, M.F., Prieto, V.G., George, S., Babu, D., Koul, D., Bar-Eli, M., Duvic, M. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Cloning and characterization of a novel epidermal cell surface antigen (ESA). Schroeder, W.T., Stewart-Galetka, S., Mandavilli, S., Parry, D.A., Goldsmith, L., Duvic, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Reggie-1 and reggie-2, two cell surface proteins expressed by retinal ganglion cells during axon regeneration. Schulte, T., Paschke, K.A., Laessing, U., Lottspeich, F., Stuermer, C.A. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Monoclonal antibody to a 35 kD epidermal protein induces cell detachment. Negi, M., Lane, A.T., McCoon, P.E., Fairley, J.A., Goldsmith, L.A. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. A rapid translocation of CD45RO but not CD45RA to lipid rafts in IL-6-induced proliferation in myeloma. Li, F.J., Tsuyama, N., Ishikawa, H., Obata, M., Abroun, S., Liu, S., Otsuyama, K., Zheng, X., Ma, Z., Maki, Y., Kawano, M.M. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Stomatin is a major lipid-raft component of platelet alpha granules. Mairhofer, M., Steiner, M., Mosgoeller, W., Prohaska, R., Salzer, U. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of reggie-1/flotillin-2 in cell spreading and signaling to the actin cytoskeleton. Neumann-Giesen, C., Fernow, I., Amaddii, M., Tikkanen, R. J. Cell. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Distinct roles for the essential MYST family HAT Esa1p in transcriptional silencing. Clarke, A.S., Samal, E., Pillus, L. Mol. Biol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Flotillin 2 is distinct from epidermal surface antigen (ESA) and is associated with filopodia formation. Hazarika, P., Dham, N., Patel, P., Cho, M., Weidner, D., Goldsmith, L., Duvic, M. J. Cell. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Ca(++)-dependent vesicle release from erythrocytes involves stomatin-specific lipid rafts, synexin (annexin VII), and sorcin. Salzer, U., Hinterdorfer, P., Hunger, U., Borken, C., Prohaska, R. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Detergent-resistant membranes in human erythrocytes and their connection to the membrane-skeleton. Ciana, A., Balduini, C., Minetti, G. J. Biosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Induction of the E-selectin promoter by interleukin 1 and tumour necrosis factor alpha, and inhibition by glucocorticoids. Ray, K.P., Farrow, S., Daly, M., Talabot, F., Searle, N. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Accumulation of FlAsH/Lumio Green in active mitochondria can be reversed by beta-mercaptoethanol for specific staining of tetracysteine-tagged proteins. Langhorst, M.F., Genisyuerek, S., Stuermer, C.A. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. A polycystin multiprotein complex constitutes a cholesterol-containing signalling microdomain in human kidney epithelia. Roitbak, T., Surviladze, Z., Tikkanen, R., Wandinger-Ness, A. Biochem. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Reorganization of lipid rafts during capacitation of human sperm. Cross, N.L. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Sphingolipid-cholesterol domains (lipid rafts) in normal human and dog thyroid follicular cells are not involved in thyrotropin receptor signaling. Costa, M.J., Song, Y., Macours, P., Massart, C., Many, M.C., Costagliola, S., Dumont, J.E., Van Sande, J., Vanvooren, V. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification of differentially expressed genes in metastatic and non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by suppression subtractive hybridization. Yang, X.Y., Ren, C.P., Wang, L., Li, H., Jiang, C.J., Zhang, H.B., Zhao, M., Yao, K.T. Cellular oncology : the official journal of the International Society for Cellular Oncology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Sigma-2 receptors are specifically localized to lipid rafts in rat liver membranes. Gebreselassie, D., Bowen, W.D. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities