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Gene Review

Tsc2  -  tuberous sclerosis 2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Tuberin, Tuberous sclerosis 2 protein homolog
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Disease relevance of Tsc2

  • Eker leiomyomas exhibited a 50% incidence of loss of the wild-type Tsc2 allele and an almost uniform loss of protein expression, implicating loss of function of the Tsc2 gene in these tumors [1].
  • Exogenously expressed caveolin-1-GFP and vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, VSVG-GFP in the Tsc2-/- cells failed to be transported to the plasma membrane and were retained in distinct post-Golgi vesicles [2].
  • Alterations in the rat tuberous sclerosis gene (Tsc2) cause renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) with complete penetrance [3].
  • Eker rats develop dominantly inherited renal carcinomas (RCs), with hereditary mutation, and following somatic mutation (Knudson's second hit) at tuberous sclerosis gene (Tsc2) [4].
  • The goals of this study were to characterize the apoptotic response of a tuberous sclerosis complex-2 (Tsc2) tumor suppressor gene-null cell line, to establish valid biochemical events that can be used as apoptosis markers, and to determine how these events correlate with apoptosis-specific morphologic changes [5].

High impact information on Tsc2

  • We have previously established a new conserved linkage group on rat chromosome 10q and human chromosome 16p13.3, and shown that the Eker mutation is tightly linked to the tuberous sclerosis (Tsc2) gene [6].
  • In tuberin-deficient cells, intracellular trafficking of polycystin-1 was disrupted, resulting in sequestration of polycystin-1 within the Golgi and reexpression of Tsc2 restored correct polycystin-1 membrane localization [7].
  • Loss of function of the normal Tsc-2 allele remained the rate-limiting event for tumorigenesis; however, tumors that developed in exposed animals displayed an enhanced proliferative response to steroid hormones relative to tumors that developed in unexposed animals [8].
  • The tuberous sclerosis complex gene-2 (TSC2) on chromosome 16 encodes the tumor suppressor protein tuberin [9].
  • Predisposition to renal carcinoma in the Eker rat is determined by germ-line mutation of the tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) gene [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Tsc2


Biological context of Tsc2


Anatomical context of Tsc2


Associations of Tsc2 with chemical compounds

  • Reexpression of Tsc2 in tuberin-negative cells decreased ERK activity, consistent with the growth-suppressive effects of this tumor suppressor gene [19].
  • Tsc2 expression increased the susceptibility of ERC-18 cells to apoptosis induced by OKA and the phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase inhibitor, LY294002 [16].
  • The function of the TSC2/Tsc2 gene product (called "tuberine" in the human case) is not yet understood, although it contains a short amino acid sequence homologous to the ras family GTPase-activating proteins (GAP3) [20].
  • In cells lacking tuberin, most of the endogenous caveolin-1 was displaced from the plasma membrane to a Brefeldin-A-sensitive, post-Golgi compartment distinct from the endosome and lysosome [2].
  • To further characterize the microsomal pool of tuberin, we found that it cofractionated with caveolin-1 in a low-density, Triton X-100-resistant fraction (i.e., lipid rafts) and regulated its localization [2].

Physical interactions of Tsc2

  • Co-expression of tuberin stabilized hamartin, which is weakly ubiquitinated, in transiently transfected cells [13].

Regulatory relationships of Tsc2


Other interactions of Tsc2

  • Retention of membrane-localized beta-catenin in cells lacking functional polycystin-1 and tuberin [22].
  • EKT2 cells lacking tuberin because of inactivation of the Tsc2 gene fail to localize polycystin-1 and E-cadherin appropriately to these junctions [22].
  • These results indicate that the OKA-induced, caspase-independent detachment previously observed in ERC-18 cells is Tsc2-dependent, and may support an additional role for the Tsc2 in regulating cell adhesion [16].
  • Tuberin is a component of lipid rafts and mediates caveolin-1 localization: role of TSC2 in post-Golgi transport [2].
  • Platelet-derived growth factor-induced p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and cellular growth is mediated by reactive oxygen species in the absence of TSC2/tuberin [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tsc2

  • A combination of laser capture microdissection and semi-nested polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of the wild-type Tsc2 allele in the cytomegalic neurons isolated individually [24].
  • Immunohistochemistry also detected positive tuberin immunoreactivity in many of these giant neurons [24].
  • The Eker rat is an animal model of tuberous sclerosis caused by a mutation in the Tsc2 gene encoding a tumor suppressor protein, tuberin [24].
  • We tested the hypothesis that estrogen treatment or ovariectomy of rats modulates renal tumor development using tuberous sclerosis 2 (Tsc2) heterozygous mutant (Eker) rats in which a germline mutation predisposes the animals to renal cell tumor development [25].
  • Indirect immunofluorescence of tuberin in various cultured cell lines revealed a punctate, mostly perinuclear staining pattern [26].


  1. Aberrant expression of HMGA2 in uterine leiomyoma associated with loss of TSC2 tumor suppressor gene function. Hunter, D.S., Klotzbücher, M., Kugoh, H., Cai, S.L., Mullen, J.P., Manfioletti, G., Fuhrman, U., Walker, C.L. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Tuberin is a component of lipid rafts and mediates caveolin-1 localization: role of TSC2 in post-Golgi transport. Jones, K.A., Jiang, X., Yamamoto, Y., Yeung, R.S. Exp. Cell Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Ets protein Elf-1 bidirectionally suppresses transcriptional activities of the tumor suppressor Tsc2 gene and the repair-related Nth1 gene. Honda, S., Kobayashi, T., Kajino, K., Urakami, S., Igawa, M., Hino, O. Mol. Carcinog. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Specific induction of hepatocellular adenomas by transplacental administration of ENU in the tsc2 gene mutant (Eker) rat. Fukuda, T., Mitani, H., Tsutsumi, M., Konishi, Y., Hino, O. Int. J. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Biochemical and morphological events during okadaic acid-induced apoptosis of Tsc2-null ERC-18 cell line. Kolb, T.M., Chang, S.H., Davis, M.A. Toxicologic pathology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. A germline insertion in the tuberous sclerosis (Tsc2) gene gives rise to the Eker rat model of dominantly inherited cancer. Kobayashi, T., Hirayama, Y., Kobayashi, E., Kubo, Y., Hino, O. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Tuberin-dependent membrane localization of polycystin-1: a functional link between polycystic kidney disease and the TSC2 tumor suppressor gene. Kleymenova, E., Ibraghimov-Beskrovnaya, O., Kugoh, H., Everitt, J., Xu, H., Kiguchi, K., Landes, G., Harris, P., Walker, C. Mol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Interaction between genetic susceptibility and early-life environmental exposure determines tumor-suppressor-gene penetrance. Cook, J.D., Davis, B.J., Cai, S.L., Barrett, J.C., Conti, C.J., Walker, C.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Inactivation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 upon loss of the tuberous sclerosis complex gene-2. Soucek, T., Yeung, R.S., Hengstschläger, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Predisposition to renal carcinoma in the Eker rat is determined by germ-line mutation of the tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) gene. Yeung, R.S., Xiao, G.H., Jin, F., Lee, W.C., Testa, J.R., Knudson, A.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. The transcriptional profile of the kidney in Tsc2 heterozygous mutant Long Evans (Eker) rats compared to wild-type. Sen, B., Wolf, D.C., Hester, S.D. Mutat. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification of tuberous sclerosis 2 messenger RNA splice variants that are conserved and differentially expressed in rat and human tissues. Xiao, G.H., Jin, F., Yeung, R.S. Cell Growth Differ. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. The tuberous sclerosis-1 (TSC1) gene product hamartin suppresses cell growth and augments the expression of the TSC2 product tuberin by inhibiting its ubiquitination. Benvenuto, G., Li, S., Brown, S.J., Braverman, R., Vass, W.C., Cheadle, J.P., Halley, D.J., Sampson, J.R., Wienecke, R., DeClue, J.E. Oncogene (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Genetic identification of a locus, Mot1, that affects renal tumor size in the rat. Yeung, R.S., Gu, H., Lee, M., Dundon, T.A. Genomics (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Regulation of microtubule-dependent protein transport by the TSC2/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Jiang, X., Yeung, R.S. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Tsc2 expression increases the susceptibility of renal tumor cells to apoptosis. Kolb, T.M., Duan, L., Davis, M.A. Toxicol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. A new Western blotting method using polymer immunocomplexes: detection of Tsc1 and Tsc2 expression in various cultured cell lines. Fukuda, T., Tani, Y., Kobayashi, T., Hirayama, Y., Hino, O. Anal. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Allelic loss at the tuberous sclerosis 2 locus in spontaneous tumors in the Eker rat. Yeung, R.S., Xiao, G.H., Everitt, J.I., Jin, F., Walker, C.L. Mol. Carcinog. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Cell proliferation is insufficient, but loss of tuberin is necessary, for chemically induced nephrocarcinogenicity. Yoon, H.S., Monks, T.J., Everitt, J.I., Walker, C.L., Lau, S.S. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Renal carcinogenesis in the Eker rat. Hino, O., Kobayashi, E., Nishizawa, M., Kubo, Y., Kobayashi, T., Hirayama, Y., Takai, S., Kikuchi, Y., Tsuchiya, H., Orimoto, K. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Involvement of G i/o proteins in nerve growth factor-stimulated phosphorylation and degradation of tuberin in PC-12 cells and cortical neurons. Wu, E.H., Wong, Y.H. Mol. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Retention of membrane-localized beta-catenin in cells lacking functional polycystin-1 and tuberin. Kugoh, H., Kleymenova, E., Walker, C.L. Mol. Carcinog. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Platelet-derived growth factor-induced p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and cellular growth is mediated by reactive oxygen species in the absence of TSC2/tuberin. Finlay, G.A., Thannickal, V.J., Fanburg, B.L., Kwiatkowski, D.J. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Absence of allelic loss in cytomegalic neurons of cortical tuber in the Eker rat model of tuberous sclerosis. Mizuguchi, M., Mori, M., Nozaki, Y., Momoi, M.Y., Itoh, M., Takashima, S., Hino, O. Acta Neuropathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Estrogen treatment enhances hereditary renal tumor development in Eker rats. Wolf, D.C., Goldsworthy, T.L., Donner, E.M., Harden, R., Fitzpatrick, B., Everitt, J.I. Carcinogenesis (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Co-localization of the TSC2 product tuberin with its target Rap1 in the Golgi apparatus. Wienecke, R., Maize, J.C., Shoarinejad, F., Vass, W.C., Reed, J., Bonifacino, J.S., Resau, J.H., de Gunzburg, J., Yeung, R.S., DeClue, J.E. Oncogene (1996) [Pubmed]
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