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Gene Review

EPGN  -  epithelial mitogen

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ALGV3072, EPG, Epigen, Epithelial mitogen, PRO9904, ...
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Disease relevance of EPGN

  • Although the total percentages of PUFA in the two phosphoglycerides were not altered, compared with controls the ratio of PUFA of the (n-3) series to those of the (n-6) series was very significantly elevated in Down's syndrome, from 0.32 to 0.55 in EPG and from 0.60 to 0.97 in SPG [1].
  • Most of the hookworm infections (73.3%) were light/very light in intensity with a mean EPG of 619 [2].
  • Hookworm anemia was defined as an iron deficiency anemia in heavily infected individuals (EPG > 2,000) [3].
  • In contrast, an increase in EPG in batch cultures of Streptococcus mutans, serotype c, was associated with an increased rate of diffusion [4].
  • In this study EPG was used to investigate the articulatory characteristics of voiceless coronal obstruent targets /s, f, tf, t/ in ten children with functional articulation disorders [5].

High impact information on EPGN

  • The epithelial mitogen keratinocyte growth factor binds to collagens via the consensus sequence glycine-proline-hydroxyproline [6].
  • Changes in EPG and mean plasma glucose (PG) during OGTT correlated with changes in basal EGP (r = 0.54; r = 0.58), first EGP (r = 0.36; r = 0.41), first MCR (r = -0.66; r = -0.68), second MCR (r = -0.49; r = -0.54), fasting plasma NEFA (r = 0.53; r = 0.49), and NEFA during OGTT (r = 0.66; r = 0.66) [7].
  • However, after several hours, radioactivity was transferred from the TG and CPG pools, some going to the serine and ethanolamine phosphoglyceride (SPG and EPG) pools [8].
  • Fibroblasts from all groups showed direct transfer of fatty acids (FAs) into CPG and EPG [8].
  • As this may relate to the composition of polyunsaturated acyl groups (PUFA) in phospholipids, we have examined the PUFA of ethanolamine and serine phosphoglycerides (EPG and SPG), which are particularly rich in PUFA, in the same series of cerebral cortex specimens of Down's syndrome and age-matched control fetuses [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of EPGN

  • Thus the retardation of the diffusion of sucrose in dental plaque is largely explained by the tortuosity of the available diffusion channels and the retardation of diffusion effected by EPG is probably of greater significance in older, thicker and more tightly-packed dental plaque [4].

Biological context of EPGN

  • The EPG membranes containing 2.5-10% PEG 400 (2.5-10% EPG) showed the glass transition temperatures (Tgs) around the body temperature (32-42 degrees C) [9].
  • Although the fatty acid composition of the diet did not change between pregnancy and lactation, docosahexaenoic and total n-3 increased in heart CPG and EPG and liver CPG of the suckling pups [10].
  • Various hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, hemoglobin EPG pattern at pH 8.9 and the percentage of hemoglobin Bart's determined by elution at pH 6.7 were measured to assess which would be the most useful in diagnosis of alpha thalassemia at this time of life [11].

Anatomical context of EPGN

  • The thermo-sensitive permeation mechanism for the EPG membranes might be based on the structure change of the membranes caused by the glass transition, so that the membranes could absorb more water [9].
  • Egg counts per gram of feces (EPG) were approximately 1,000 during the 1st year, 1,500 over the next 5 years, and less than or equal to 200 over the final 3 years, during which time there were 6 periods of approximately 1 month each when Kato thick-smear examinations revealed no eggs [12].
  • The levels of the n-6 LCPUFA, arachidonic (AA), adrenic and docosapentaenoic acids in erythrocyte CPG (P<0.001) and EPG (P<0.01) were higher in the patients compared with the controls [13].
  • We therefore used a cell culture model derived from the gastric carcinoma cell line EPG 85-257P [14].
  • The EPG patterns were classified according to certain criteria, such as the presence or absence of complete constriction between the tongue and the hard palate, and the area and location of this contact [15].

Associations of EPGN with chemical compounds


Other interactions of EPGN

  • Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to be a potent epithelial mitogen and oncoprotein when sustained over expression occurs [18].
  • Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a locally acting epithelial mitogen that is produced by cells of mesenchymal origin and has an important role in protecting and repairing epithelial tissues [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of EPGN

  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: To obtain further insight into the molecular pathogenesis of TCC we used quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay to quantify mRNA expression of the 4 ERBB and their 11 known ligand genes, including recently described EPGN/epigen, in 73 tumor samples [20].
  • Forty subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups: electromyostimulation (EG), plyometric (PG), combined EMG, and P (EPG), that took place 4 times per week, and a control group (CG) [21].
  • Mass chemotherapy achieved the best cost-effectiveness ratio, with unit costs of preventing cases of infection, liver and spleen abnormality and 1% reduction of EPG being RMB yuan 161.2, 99.8, 219.3 and 176.3, respectively [22].
  • Stool follow-up 6 months after treatment showed 89.2% of EPG (eggs per gram of faeces) negativity, with an overall egg reduction of 91.1% [23].
  • While in EPG, GB motility is impaired, it achieves physiological values in LPG patients, which can be attributed to establishment of corresponding hormonal mechanisms, in the late postoperative period [24].


  1. Altered composition of polyunsaturated fatty acyl groups in phosphoglycerides of Down's syndrome fetal brain. Brooksbank, B.W., Martinez, M., Balazs, R. J. Neurochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Some epidemiological aspects of hookworm infection among the rural population of Bali, Indonesia. Bakta, I.M., Widjana, I.D., Sutisna, P. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Hookworm anemia in the adult population of Jagapati village, Bali, Indonesia. Bakta, I.M., Budhianto, F.X. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. The effects of heat inactivation, tortuosity, extracellular polyglucan and ion-exchange sites on the diffusion of [14C]-sucrose in human dental plaque residue in vitro. Tatevossian, A. Arch. Oral Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. A study of obstruent sounds in school-age children with speech disorders using electropalatography. Gibbon, F., Hardcastle, B., Dent, H. European journal of disorders of communication : the journal of the College of Speech and Language Therapists, London. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. The epithelial mitogen keratinocyte growth factor binds to collagens via the consensus sequence glycine-proline-hydroxyproline. Ruehl, M., Somasundaram, R., Schoenfelder, I., Farndale, R.W., Knight, C.G., Schmid, M., Ackermann, R., Riecken, E.O., Zeitz, M., Schuppan, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of rosiglitazone on glucose and non-esterified fatty acid metabolism in Type II diabetic patients. Miyazaki, Y., Glass, L., Triplitt, C., Matsuda, M., Cusi, K., Mahankali, A., Mahankali, S., Mandarino, L.J., DeFronzo, R.A. Diabetologia (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. The metabolism of fatty acids in human Bietti crystalline dystrophy. Lee, J., Jiao, X., Hejtmancik, J.F., Kaiser-Kupfer, M., Gahl, W.A., Markello, T.C., Guo, J., Chader, G.J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Application of Eudragit RS to thermo-sensitive drug delivery systems: II. Effect of temperature on drug permeability through membrane consisting of Eudragit RS/PEG 400 blend polymers. Fujimori, J., Yoshihashi, Y., Yonemochi, E., Terada, K. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Post-natal modulation of heart and liver phosphoglyceride fatty acids in pups. Ghebremeskel, K., Bitsanis, D., Koukkou, E., Lowy, C., Poston, L., Crawford, M.A. Ann. Nutr. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Diagnosis of alpha thalassemia in the newborn. Cord blood survey utilizing gene mapping. Trent, R.J., Brock, P.E., Yakas, J., Trent, L.M., Kronenberg, H. Pathology. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Light, long-lasting Necator infection in a volunteer. Beaver, P.C. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Steady-state haemoglobin level in sickle cell anaemia increases with an increase in erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acids. Ren, H., Obike, I., Okpala, I., Ghebremeskel, K., Ugochukwu, C., Crawford, M. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Increased expression of annexin I and thioredoxin detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of drug resistant human stomach cancer cells. Sinha, P., Hütter, G., Köttgen, E., Dietel, M., Schadendorf, D., Lage, H. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Cross-linguistic study of lateral misarticulation using electropalatography. Suzuki, N., Wakumoto, M., Michi, K., Dent, H., Gibbon, F., Hardcastle, W.J. European journal of disorders of communication : the journal of the College of Speech and Language Therapists, London. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Gamma-irradiation of non-frozen, frozen, and freeze-dried liposomes. Zuidam, N.J., Lee, S.S., Crommelin, D.J. Pharm. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Maternal-fetal n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids gradient in plasma and red cell phospholipids. Min, Y., Ghebremeskel, K., Crawford, M.A., Nam, J.H., Kim, A., Lee, I.S., Suzuki, H. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernährungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori normalizes elevated mucosal levels of epidermal growth factor and its receptor. Coyle, W.J., Sedlack, R.E., Nemec, R., Peterson, R., Duntemann, T., Murphy, M., Lawson, J.M. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Keratinocyte growth factor expression and activity in cancer: implications for use in patients with solid tumors. Finch, P.W., Rubin, J.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Gene expression profiling of ERBB receptors and ligands in human transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Amsellem-Ouazana, D., Bièche, I., Tozlu, S., Botto, H., Debré, B., Lidereau, R. J. Urol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Electromyostimulation and plyometric training effects on jumping and sprint time. Herrero, J.A., Izquierdo, M., Maffiuletti, N.A., García-López, J. International journal of sports medicine. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the impacts on infection and morbidity attributable to three chemotherapy schemes against Schistosoma japonicum in hyperendemic areas of the Dongting Lake region, China. Yu, D., Sarol, J.N., Hutton, G., Tan, D., Tanner, M. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Phase III clinical trials with praziquantel in S. japonicum infections in the Philippines. Santos, A.T., Blas, B.L., Portillo, G., Noseñas, J.S., Poliquit, O., Papasin, M. Arzneimittel-Forschung. (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Estimation of the gallbladder motility after meal stimulation in the postgastrectomy patients by infusion cholescintigraphy. Artiko, V., Petrović, M., Milicević, M., Obradović, V., Kostić, K. Med. Pregl. (1993) [Pubmed]
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