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MeSH Review

Glucose Tolerance Test

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Disease relevance of Glucose Tolerance Test


Psychiatry related information on Glucose Tolerance Test


High impact information on Glucose Tolerance Test


Chemical compound and disease context of Glucose Tolerance Test


Biological context of Glucose Tolerance Test


Anatomical context of Glucose Tolerance Test

  • Marked improvements in oral glucose tolerance, suggesting enhanced insulin secretory capacity, were corroborated by pancreas perfusion and insulin content measurements that revealed two- to eightfold increases in both secretory function and insulin content after 7 weeks of treatment [26].
  • Fasting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) correlated positively with body fat (r = 0.73; P = 0.001) in Caucasians but not in Pima Indians, whereas the increase in MSNA during the OGTT correlated negatively with the percentage of body fat (r = -0.38, P = 0.03) independently of race [27].
  • Insulin has important effects to increase skeletal muscle (leg) blood flow under euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp conditions and after oral glucose tolerance testing [28].
  • We have demonstrated that acute infection has a unique metabolic profile with a high degree of local inflammation in adipose tissue, hypoadiponectinemia, hypoglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia but with relatively normal glucose disposal during an oral glucose tolerance test [29].
  • He had a low insulin secretion rate during an OGTT, but a twofold increase in pancreatic beta-cell response after intravenous glucose and a 2.5- to 4-fold increase in beta-cell response after either intravenous tolbutamide or intravenous glucagon loads [30].

Associations of Glucose Tolerance Test with chemical compounds


Gene context of Glucose Tolerance Test

  • Serum GIP levels in GLP-1R -/- mice were significantly elevated versus those in +/+ control mice after an oral glucose tolerance test (369 +/- 40 vs. 236 +/- 28 pmol/l; P < or = 0.02) [35].
  • In this study, we addressed the question of whether the common -866G/A polymorphism in UCP2 gene contributes to the variation of insulin secretion in humans by genotyping 301 nondiabetic subjects who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test [36].
  • The finding of an association between homozygosity for the codon 354 variant and reduced fasting and post oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) serum C-peptide concentrations, however, calls for further investigations and could suggest that GIP even in the fasting state regulates the beta-cell secretory response [37].
  • The subjects with IGFBP1 Bgl II AA (n = 8) showed greater increases in abdominal visceral fat (p < 0.01), OGTT insulin area (p = 0.05) and total cholesterol (p < 0.03) with overfeeding than the subjects with AG + GG (n = 16) [38].
  • Insulin concentrations were higher in the glucokinase subjects throughout the OGTT [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Glucose Tolerance Test


  1. First-degree relatives of patients with type I diabetes mellitus. Islet-cell antibodies and abnormal insulin secretion. Srikanta, S., Ganda, O.P., Rabizadeh, A., Soeldner, J.S., Eisenbarth, G.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of weight loss vs aerobic exercise training on risk factors for coronary disease in healthy, obese, middle-aged and older men. A randomized controlled trial. Katzel, L.I., Bleecker, E.R., Colman, E.G., Rogus, E.M., Sorkin, J.D., Goldberg, A.P. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Increased glucose effectiveness in normoglycemic but insulin-resistant relatives of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A novel compensatory mechanism. Henriksen, J.E., Alford, F., Handberg, A., Vaag, A., Ward, G.M., Kalfas, A., Beck-Nielsen, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. The relative roles of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone in glucose- and tolbutamide-mediated insulin release. Harter, H.R., Santiago, J.V., Rutherford, W.E., Slatopolsky, E., Klahr, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Oral glucose-tolerance tests and the diagnosis of diabetes: results of a prospective study based on the Whitehall survey. Sayegh, H.A., Jarrett, R.J. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Glucose metabolism in patients with schizophrenia treated with atypical antipsychotic agents: a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal model analysis. Henderson, D.C., Cagliero, E., Copeland, P.M., Borba, C.P., Evins, E., Hayden, D., Weber, M.T., Anderson, E.J., Allison, D.B., Daley, T.B., Schoenfeld, D., Goff, D.C. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Relationship between habitual physical activity and insulin area among individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Regensteiner, J.G., Shetterly, S.M., Mayer, E.J., Eckel, R.H., Haskell, W.L., Baxter, J., Hamman, R.F. Diabetes Care (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Advanced glycation end product levels in eye lenses, aorta, and tail tendon in transplanted diabetic inbred Lewis rats. Sensi, M., Morano, S., Sagratella, E., Castaldo, P., Morelli, S., Vetri, M., Caltabiano, V., Purrello, F., Andreani, D., Vecci, E., Di Mario, U. Transplantation (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Plasma levels of active form of ghrelin during oral glucose tolerance test in patients with anorexia nervosa. Nakai, Y., Hosoda, H., Nin, K., Ooya, C., Hayashi, H., Akamizu, T., Kangawa, K. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Glucose tolerance predicts performance on tests of memory and cognition. Donohoe, R.T., Benton, D. Physiol. Behav. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Tuomilehto, J., Lindström, J., Eriksson, J.G., Valle, T.T., Hämäläinen, H., Ilanne-Parikka, P., Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S., Laakso, M., Louheranta, A., Rastas, M., Salminen, V., Uusitupa, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Ovulatory and metabolic effects of D-chiro-inositol in the polycystic ovary syndrome. Nestler, J.E., Jakubowicz, D.J., Reamer, P., Gunn, R.D., Allan, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Early metabolic defects in persons at increased risk for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Eriksson, J., Franssila-Kallunki, A., Ekstrand, A., Saloranta, C., Widén, E., Schalin, C., Groop, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Intensity and amount of physical activity in relation to insulin sensitivity: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Mayer-Davis, E.J., D'Agostino, R., Karter, A.J., Haffner, S.M., Rewers, M.J., Saad, M., Bergman, R.N. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Improved insulin-sensitivity in mice heterozygous for PPAR-gamma deficiency. Miles, P.D., Barak, Y., He, W., Evans, R.M., Olefsky, J.M. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Nonketotic diabetes mellitus: insulin deficiency or insulin resistance? Reaven, G.M., Bernstein, R., Davis, B., Olefsky, J.M. Am. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Pancreatic secretion in man with subclinical vitamin D deficiency. Nyomba, B.L., Auwerx, J., Bormans, V., Peeters, T.L., Pelemans, W., Reynaert, J., Bouillon, R., Vantrappen, G., De Moor, P. Diabetologia (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of weight loss with orlistat on glucose tolerance and progression to type 2 diabetes in obese adults. Heymsfield, S.B., Segal, K.R., Hauptman, J., Lucas, C.P., Boldrin, M.N., Rissanen, A., Wilding, J.P., Sjöström, L. Arch. Intern. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Low prevalence of islet autoimmunity in adult diabetes and low predictive value of islet autoantibodies in the general adult population of northern Italy. Bosi, E.P., Garancini, M.P., Poggiali, F., Bonifacio, E., Gallus, G. Diabetologia (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. The prevalent Gly1057Asp polymorphism in the insulin receptor substrate-2 gene is not associated with impaired insulin secretion. Fritsche, A., Madaus, A., Renn, W., Tschritter, O., Teigeler, A., Weisser, M., Maerker, E., Machicao, F., Häring, H., Stumvoll, M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Physiological role for cholecystokinin in reducing postprandial hyperglycemia in humans. Liddle, R.A., Rushakoff, R.J., Morita, E.T., Beccaria, L., Carter, J.D., Goldfine, I.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Induction of adrenal suppression by megestrol acetate in patients with AIDS. Leinung, M.C., Liporace, R., Miller, C.H. Ann. Intern. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Metabolic and cardiovascular effects of carvedilol and atenolol in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hypertension. A randomized, controlled trial. Giugliano, D., Acampora, R., Marfella, R., De Rosa, N., Ziccardi, P., Ragone, R., De Angelis, L., D'Onofrio, F. Ann. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Abnormalities in glucose regulation during antipsychotic treatment of schizophrenia. Newcomer, J.W., Haupt, D.W., Fucetola, R., Melson, A.K., Schweiger, J.A., Cooper, B.P., Selke, G. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Increased activity of the glucose cycle in the liver: early characteristic of type 2 diabetes. Efendić, S., Wajngot, A., Vranić, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor treatment stimulates beta-cell survival and islet neogenesis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pospisilik, J.A., Martin, J., Doty, T., Ehses, J.A., Pamir, N., Lynn, F.C., Piteau, S., Demuth, H.U., McIntosh, C.H., Pederson, R.A. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity in response to glucose ingestion. Impact of plasma insulin and body fat. Spraul, M., Anderson, E.A., Bogardus, C., Ravussin, E. Diabetes (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Contribution of blood flow to leg glucose uptake during a mixed meal. Hernández Mijares, A., Jensen, M.D. Diabetes (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. The adipocyte as an important target cell for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Combs, T.P., Nagajyothi, n.u.l.l., Mukherjee, S., de Almeida, C.J., Jelicks, L.A., Schubert, W., Lin, Y., Jayabalan, D.S., Zhao, D., Braunstein, V.L., Landskroner-Eiger, S., Cordero, A., Factor, S.M., Weiss, L.M., Lisanti, M.P., Tanowitz, H.B., Scherer, P.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Novel MODY3 mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha gene: evidence for a hyperexcitability of pancreatic beta-cells to intravenous secretagogues in a glucose-tolerant carrier of a P447L mutation. Hansen, T., Eiberg, H., Rouard, M., Vaxillaire, M., Møller, A.M., Rasmussen, S.K., Fridberg, M., Urhammer, S.A., Holst, J.J., Almind, K., Echwald, S.M., Hansen, L., Bell, G.I., Pedersen, O. Diabetes (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of metformin on spontaneous and clomiphene-induced ovulation in the polycystic ovary syndrome. Nestler, J.E., Jakubowicz, D.J., Evans, W.S., Pasquali, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in obese subjects treated with troglitazone. Nolan, J.J., Ludvik, B., Beerdsen, P., Joyce, M., Olefsky, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Insulin-like growth factor I stimulates lipid oxidation, reduces protein oxidation, and enhances insulin sensitivity in humans. Hussain, M.A., Schmitz, O., Mengel, A., Keller, A., Christiansen, J.S., Zapf, J., Froesch, E.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  34. Deficiency of phosphofructo-1-kinase/muscle subtype in humans impairs insulin secretion and causes insulin resistance. Ristow, M., Vorgerd, M., Möhlig, M., Schatz, H., Pfeiffer, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Enhanced glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide secretion and insulinotropic action in glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor -/- mice. Pederson, R.A., Satkunarajah, M., McIntosh, C.H., Scrocchi, L.A., Flamez, D., Schuit, F., Drucker, D.J., Wheeler, M.B. Diabetes (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. A common polymorphism in the promoter of UCP2 contributes to the variation in insulin secretion in glucose-tolerant subjects. Sesti, G., Cardellini, M., Marini, M.A., Frontoni, S., D'Adamo, M., Del Guerra, S., Lauro, D., De Nicolais, P., Sbraccia, P., Del Prato, S., Gambardella, S., Federici, M., Marchetti, P., Lauro, R. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Discovery of amino acid variants in the human glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor: the impact on the pancreatic beta cell responses and functional expression studies in Chinese hamster fibroblast cells. Almind, K., Ambye, L., Urhammer, S.A., Hansen, T., Echwald, S.M., Holst, J.J., Gromada, J., Thorens, B., Pedersen, O. Diabetologia (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2 ) and IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) gene variants are associated with overfeeding-induced metabolic changes. Ukkola, O., Sun, G., Bouchard, C. Diabetologia (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. The genetic abnormality in the beta cell determines the response to an oral glucose load. Stride, A., Vaxillaire, M., Tuomi, T., Barbetti, F., Njølstad, P.R., Hansen, T., Costa, A., Conget, I., Pedersen, O., Søvik, O., Lorini, R., Groop, L., Froguel, P., Hattersley, A.T. Diabetologia (2002) [Pubmed]
  40. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Sudden onset following hypophysectomy in an acromegalic patient. Bunick, E.M., Schmidek, H., Lavine, R.L., Garofano, C.D., Rose, L.I. JAMA (1977) [Pubmed]
  41. Insulin receptor substrate-1 variants in non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Laakso, M., Malkki, M., Kekäläinen, P., Kuusisto, J., Deeb, S.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  42. Decreased insulin activation of glycogen synthase in skeletal muscles in young nonobese Caucasian first-degree relatives of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Vaag, A., Henriksen, J.E., Beck-Nielsen, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  43. Glycerol production in subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean and obese humans. Jansson, P.A., Larsson, A., Smith, U., Lönnroth, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  44. A prospective follow-up study of alcoholic violent offenders and fire setters. Virkkunen, M., Eggert, M., Rawlings, R., Linnoila, M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1996) [Pubmed]
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