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Gene Review

Sdc2  -  syndecan 2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Fibroglycan, HSPG, Heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein, Hspg1, SYND2, ...
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Disease relevance of Sdc2


High impact information on Sdc2


Chemical compound and disease context of Sdc2

  • Our findings suggest that both osmotic and nonosmotic mechanisms are operative in dysregulation of glycopeptide metabolism by high-glucose medium and that reduced synthesis by the GEC may contribute to decreased content of GBM HSPG in diabetic nephropathy [8].
  • Heparan sulfate (HS)/heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) and bikunin are up-regulated during calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rat kidney [9].

Biological context of Sdc2

  • Early introduction of syndecan-2 cDNA into immature hippocampal neurons, by transient transfection, accelerates spine formation from dendritic protrusions [10].
  • The results obtained indicated the existence of two pools of detergent-solubilized HSPG with fast (t1/2 = 6 h) and slow (t1/2 = 55 h) turnover kinetics [11].
  • During cell shape changes on rounding and spreading, HSPG and FN may not co-distribute [12].
  • Deletion of the COOH-terminal EFYA motif of syndecan-2, the binding site for PDZ domain proteins, abrogates the spine-promoting activity of syndecan-2 [10].
  • Syndecan and fibroglycan mRNA levels also varied as a function of cell density [13].

Anatomical context of Sdc2

  • The predicted protein sequence (23 kDa) has a high degree of homology with the published partial sequence of the human lung fibroblast HSPG, fibroglycan [14].
  • It was also localized in biosynthetic compartments (rough ER and Golgi cisternae) of hepatocytes, suggesting that this HSPG is synthesized and deposited in the space of Disse by the hepatocyte [15].
  • Overexpression of alpha i-3 on Golgi membranes in transfected cells retarded the secretion of HSPG and accumulated precursors in the medial-trans-Golgi [16].
  • We have also pinpointed the in vivo position of anticoagulantly active HSPG within the blood vessel wall [17].
  • We have studied the interaction of 125I-antithrombin (125I-AT) with microvascular endothelial cells (RFPEC) to localize the cellular site of anticoagulantly active heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) [17].

Associations of Sdc2 with chemical compounds

  • The putative ectodomain, which has 85% homology to fibroglycan, contains three possible glycosaminoglycan attachment sites that may be occupied by heparan sulfate chains [14].
  • When the purified HSPG fractions were further separated by octyl-Sepharose chromatography, very little HSPG in the incubation media bound to the octyl-Sepharose, whereas 40-55% of that in the cell layers bound and could be eluted with 1% Triton X-100 [18].
  • Based upon the above data, we propose a model whereby luminal and abluminal anticoagulantly active HSPG regulate coagulation mechanism activity [17].
  • Constitutive secretory vesicles carrying heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) were identified in isolated rat hepatocytes by pulse-chase experiments with [35S]sulfate and purified by velocity-controlled sucrose gradient centrifugation followed by equilibrium density centrifugation in Nycodenz [19].
  • The intact, fully glycosylated HSPG migrated as a broad smear (150-300 kD) by SDS-PAGE, but after deglycosylation with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid only a single approximately 40-kD band was seen [15].

Regulatory relationships of Sdc2


Other interactions of Sdc2

  • We now show that cells transfected with syndecan-2 or syndecan-4 also bind collagen and are non-invasive [21].
  • Upon purification and deglycosylation, an antiserum to rat liver HSPGs that reacts primarily with syndecan-2 showed a strong signal corresponding to this protein and three weaker bands that may represent additional syndecans. mRNAs for syndecan-1, -2, and -4 were present in the cultures [22].
  • Specifically, the level of expression of syndecan-2 and -4 and glypican mRNAs increased as the cells differentiated from proliferative late progenitors to postmitotic mature cells [23].
  • The levels of syndecan-2 and syndecan-3 mRNAs were not altered significantly after balloon injury [24].
  • When these cells differentiated into osteoblasts, they expressed syndecan-2 and -4 coincidently with FGFR-1, -2, and -3 at 9 days of culture [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sdc2


  1. Glypican-1 is frequently overexpressed in human gliomas and enhances FGF-2 signaling in glioma cells. Su, G., Meyer, K., Nandini, C.D., Qiao, D., Salamat, S., Friedl, A. Am. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. A synthetic heparanase inhibitor reduces proteinuria in passive Heymann nephritis. Levidiotis, V., Freeman, C., Punler, M., Martinello, P., Creese, B., Ferro, V., van der Vlag, J., Berden, J.H., Parish, C.R., Power, D.A. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Alterations in large and small proteoglycans in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Venkatesan, N., Ebihara, T., Roughley, P.J., Ludwig, M.S. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulation of basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan, perlecan, gene expression in glomerular epithelial cells by high glucose medium. Kasinath, B.S., Grellier, P., Choudhury, G.G., Abboud, S.L. J. Cell. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Immunohistochemical localization of basement membrane components during hair follicle morphogenesis. Westgate, G.E., Shaw, D.A., Harrap, G.J., Couchman, J.R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Antibodies to basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans bind to the laminae rarae of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and induce subepithelial GBM thickening. Miettinen, A., Stow, J.L., Mentone, S., Farquhar, M.G. J. Exp. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. EphB/syndecan-2 signaling in dendritic spine morphogenesis. Ethell, I.M., Irie, F., Kalo, M.S., Couchman, J.R., Pasquale, E.B., Yamaguchi, Y. Neuron (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of rat glomerular epithelial cell proteoglycans by high-glucose medium. Kasinath, B.S., Block, J.A., Singh, A.K., Terhune, W.C., Maldonado, R., Davalath, S., Kallgren, M.J., Wanna, L. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Heparan sulfate (HS)/heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) and bikunin are up-regulated during calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rat kidney. Eguchi, Y., Inoue, M., Iida, S., Matsuoka, K., Noda, S. The Kurume medical journal. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-2 induces the maturation of dendritic spines in rat hippocampal neurons. Ethell, I.M., Yamaguchi, Y. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Membrane anchoring of heparan sulfate proteoglycans by phosphatidylinositol and kinetics of synthesis of peripheral and detergent-solubilized proteoglycans in Schwann cells. Carey, D.J., Evans, D.M. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Relationship of heparan sulfate proteoglycans to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix of cultured fibroblasts. Woods, A., Höök, M., Kjellén, L., Smith, C.G., Rees, D.A. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential expression of transmembrane proteoglycans in vascular smooth muscle cells. Cizmeci-Smith, G., Stahl, R.C., Showalter, L.J., Carey, D.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular cloning of the major cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan from rat liver. Pierce, A., Lyon, M., Hampson, I.N., Cowling, G.J., Gallagher, J.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of a novel heparan sulfate proteoglycan found in the extracellular matrix of liver sinusoids and basement membranes. Soroka, C.J., Farquhar, M.G. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. A heterotrimeric G protein, G alpha i-3, on Golgi membranes regulates the secretion of a heparan sulfate proteoglycan in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells. Stow, J.L., de Almeida, J.B., Narula, N., Holtzman, E.J., Ercolani, L., Ausiello, D.A. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Localization of anticoagulantly active heparan sulfate proteoglycans in vascular endothelium: antithrombin binding on cultured endothelial cells and perfused rat aorta. de Agostini, A.I., Watkins, S.C., Slayter, H.S., Youssoufian, H., Rosenberg, R.D. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Distinctive populations of basement membrane and cell membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans are produced by cultured cell lines. Stow, J.L., Farquhar, M.G. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. ADP ribosylation factor and a 14-kD polypeptide are associated with heparan sulfate-carrying post-trans-Golgi network secretory vesicles in rat hepatocytes. Nickel, W., Huber, L.A., Kahn, R.A., Kipper, N., Barthel, A., Fasshauer, D., Söling, H.D. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans modulate monocyte migration across cerebral endothelium. Floris, S., van den Born, J., van der Pol, S.M., Dijkstra, C.D., De Vries, H.E. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans as adhesive and anti-invasive molecules. Syndecans and glypican have distinct functions. Liu, W., Litwack, E.D., Stanley, M.J., Langford, J.K., Lander, A.D., Sanderson, R.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Heparan sulfate chains with antimitogenic properties arise from mesangial cell-surface proteoglycans. Wang, A., Miralem, T., Templeton, D.M. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Developmental and FGF-2-mediated regulation of syndecans (1-4) and glypican in oligodendrocytes. Bansal, R., Kumar, M., Murray, K., Pfeiffer, S.E. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Syndecan-4 is a primary-response gene induced by basic fibroblast growth factor and arterial injury in vascular smooth muscle cells. Cizmeci-Smith, G., Langan, E., Youkey, J., Showalter, L.J., Carey, D.J. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Differential expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor-1, -2, and -3 and syndecan-1, -2, and -4 in neonatal rat mandibular condyle and calvaria during osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Molténi, A., Modrowski, D., Hott, M., Marie, P.J. Bone (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Identification of a lipid-anchored heparan sulfate proteoglycan in Schwann cells. Carey, D.J., Stahl, R.C. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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