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Gene Review

AMFR  -  autocrine motility factor receptor, E3...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AMF receptor, Autocrine motility factor receptor, E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase AMFR, GP78, RING finger protein 45, ...
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Disease relevance of AMFR

  • The autocrine motility factor (AMF) is known as a cytokine regulating tumor cells motility via AMF receptor (AMFR) and promotes their metastasis [1].
  • We assessed the possible correlation between AMFR, clinicopathologic features, and survival in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [2].
  • The AMFR expression was significantly associated with histologic type of tumor, mainly in adenocarcinoma [2].
  • The connection between AMFR expression and the invasive/metastatic potential of melanoma was further supported by our observation that SSM melanoma in the vertical growth phase expressed this motility receptor more strongly than tumors in the radial growth phase [3].
  • The motility stimulation of the fibrosarcoma cells with AMF is associated with the phosphorylation of the AMF receptor, a 78-kDa cell surface glycoprotein (gp78), suggesting protein kinase participation in migratory signal transduction [4].

Psychiatry related information on AMFR

  • The reduced AMFR in listeners with dyslexia may reflect impaired ability of the auditory system to follow rapid changes in stimulus energy, a cue believed to be important in the perception of speech [5].
  • Second, a parallel increase was found in hippocampal NLK and gp78 proteins after maze learning [6].

High impact information on AMFR


Chemical compound and disease context of AMFR


Biological context of AMFR


Anatomical context of AMFR


Associations of AMFR with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of AMFR

  • In contrast, gp78 lacking an intact RING finger or its multiple membrane-spanning domains stabilizes CD3-delta. gp78 has thus been found to be an example of a mammalian cellular E3 intrinsic to the ER, suggesting a potential link between ubiquitylation, ERAD, and metastasis [18].
  • Sterol-regulated Degradation of Insig-1 Mediated by the Membrane-bound Ubiquitin Ligase gp78 [19].

Regulatory relationships of AMFR

  • However, both p97/VCP and Ufd1 appear to be required for CD3delta degradation in cells expressing physiological levels of gp78 [20].

Other interactions of AMFR


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AMFR

  • The FLAG-taggedAMFR immunoprecipitated with an anti-FLAG antibody was recognized by the 3F3A mAb in Western blot analysis and cells transfected with AMFR exhibit increased labeling with the 3F3A mAb [13].
  • METHODS: Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses and phagokinetic assay, we studied the correlation between the level of AMF-R gene expression and cell motility [12].
  • The expression of c-Met, AMFR, and Ets-1 protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 99 patients with tongue SCC [22].
  • Moreover, patients with increased expression of both c-Met and AMFR had significantly worse disease-free survival [22].
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the expression patterns of c-met, AMFR, and uPAR may be closely associated with the progression and invasion of gastric carcinoma as well as the prognoses of the patients [23].


  1. Autocrine motility factor secreted by tumor cells upregulates vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (Flt-1) expression in endothelial cells. Funasaka, T., Haga, A., Raz, A., Nagase, H. Int. J. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Autocrine motility factor receptor expression in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Kara, M., Ohta, Y., Tanaka, Y., Oda, M., Watanabe, Y. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression and function of the AMF receptor by human melanoma in experimental and clinical systems. Tímár, J., Rásó, E., Döme, B., Ladányi, A., Bánfalvi, T., Gilde, K., Raz, A. Clin. Exp. Metastasis (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Purification of human tumor cell autocrine motility factor and molecular cloning of its receptor. Watanabe, H., Carmi, P., Hogan, V., Raz, T., Silletti, S., Nabi, I.R., Raz, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Scalp potentials evoked by amplitude-modulated tones in dyslexia. McAnally, K.I., Stein, J.F. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. A link between maze learning and hippocampal expression of neuroleukin and its receptor gp78. Luo, Y., Long, J.M., Lu, C., Chan, S.L., Spangler, E.L., Mascarucci, P., Raz, A., Longo, D.L., Mattson, M.P., Ingram, D.K., Weng, N.P. J. Neurochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Gp78, a membrane-anchored ubiquitin ligase, associates with Insig-1 and couples sterol-regulated ubiquitination to degradation of HMG CoA reductase. Song, B.L., Sever, N., DeBose-Boyd, R.A. Mol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Autocrine motility factor receptor is a marker for a distinct membranous tubular organelle. Benlimame, N., Simard, D., Nabi, I.R. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Autocrine motility factor induces differential 12-lipoxygenase expression and activity in high- and low-metastatic K1735 melanoma cell variants. Silletti, S., Timar, J., Honn, K.V., Raz, A. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Autoantibody against a 78 kDa membrane protein of HepG2 cell in the sera of patients with alcoholic liver diseases. Numata, T., Kato, J., Kohgo, Y., Katsuki, S., Kondo, H., Niitsu, Y. J. Gastroenterol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification of an upstream region that controls the transcription of the human autocrine motility factor receptor. Huang, B., Xie, Y., Raz, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Autocrine motility factor-receptor gene expression in lung cancer. Takanami, I., Takeuchi, K. The Japanese journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official publication of the Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery = Nihon Kyōbu Geka Gakkai zasshi. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. The gene product of the gp78/AMFR ubiquitin E3 ligase cDNA is selectively recognized by the 3F3A antibody within a subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum. Registre, M., Goetz, J.G., St Pierre, P., Pang, H., Lagacé, M., Bouvier, M., Le, P.U., Nabi, I.R. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. The autocrine motility factor (AMF) and AMF-receptor combination needs sugar chain recognition ability and interaction using the C-terminal region of AMF. Haga, A., Tanaka, N., Funasaka, T., Hashimoto, K., Nakamura, K.T., Watanabe, H., Raz, A., Nagase, H. J. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Correlation between loss of E-cadherin expression and overexpression of autocrine motility factor receptor in association with progression of human gastric cancers. Kawanishi, K., Doki, Y., Shiozaki, H., Yano, M., Inoue, M., Fukuchi, N., Utsunomiya, T., Watanabe, H., Monden, M. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Interaction of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Goetz, J.G., Nabi, I.R. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Autocrine motility factor signals integrin-mediated metastatic melanoma cell adhesion and invasion. Timar, J., Trikha, M., Szekeres, K., Bazaz, R., Tovari, J., Silletti, S., Raz, A., Honn, K.V. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. The tumor autocrine motility factor receptor, gp78, is a ubiquitin protein ligase implicated in degradation from the endoplasmic reticulum. Fang, S., Ferrone, M., Yang, C., Jensen, J.P., Tiwari, S., Weissman, A.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Sterol-regulated Degradation of Insig-1 Mediated by the Membrane-bound Ubiquitin Ligase gp78. Lee, J.N., Song, B., Debose-Boyd, R.A., Ye, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. The Role of a Novel p97/Valosin-containing Protein-interacting Motif of gp78 in Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation. Ballar, P., Shen, Y., Yang, H., Fang, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Overexpression of the tumor autocrine motility factor receptor Gp78, a ubiquitin protein ligase, results in increased ubiquitinylation and decreased secretion of apolipoprotein B100 in HepG2 cells. Liang, J.S., Kim, T., Fang, S., Yamaguchi, J., Weissman, A.M., Fisher, E.A., Ginsberg, H.N. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Prognostic value of cell motility activation factors in patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Endo, K., Shirai, A., Furukawa, M., Yoshizaki, T. Hum. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. The relation between the growth patterns of gastric carcinoma and the expression of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-met), autocrine motility factor receptor, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor. Taniguchi, K., Yonemura, Y., Nojima, N., Hirono, Y., Fushida, S., Fujimura, T., Miwa, K., Endo, Y., Yamamoto, H., Watanabe, H. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
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