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Gene Review

AVP  -  arginine vasopressin

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Disease relevance of AVP

  • During dehydration, CSF-AVP levels also rose, becoming significantly greater than control levels (p less than 0.01) after 3 days without water and further increasing to reach 15.2 +/- 1.83 microU/ml after 4 days without water (p less than 0.001) [1].
  • The main focus of the present study was to evaluate the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP), previously shown to be increased in the brain during ischemia and to promote edema formation, on activity of the BBB cotransporter [2].
  • TAH implantation caused systemic and pulmonary hypertension (P less than 0.01), salt retention, edema, and significant elevations of plasma renin, aldosterone, and arginine vasopressin [3].

Psychiatry related information on AVP


High impact information on AVP

  • The organization of these precursors has been established by sequence determination of cloned bovine cDNAs encoding prepro-arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II (prepro-AVP-NPII) and prepro-oxytocin-neurophysin I (prepro-OT-NPI) [5].
  • The sequence of a cDNA encoding the nonapeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) and its carrier protein, neurophysin II (NpII) from bovine hypothalamus, proves that the 166-amino acid precursor molecule contains a signal peptide of 19 amino acids followed directly by AVP connected to NpII by a Gly-Lys-Arg sequence [6].
  • In the dog the most conspicuous difference between synthetic arginine vasopressin and the new vasopressin peptides was the smaller pressor responses to natriuretic doses of the new compounds [7].
  • Furthermore, SR 49059 inhibited AVP-induced human platelet aggregation with an IC50 value of 3.7 +/- 0.4 nM, while OPC-21268 was inactive up to 20 microM [8].
  • Solubilized noncovalent complexes of [Arg8]-vasopressin (AVP) with receptor proteins from rat liver membranes were isolated by selective binding to silica-immobilized antisense (AS) peptide [9].

Biological context of AVP

  • Scatchard plots showed that each ligand interacted with a single high-affinity, low-capacity binding site: oxytocin dissociation constant (Kd) 3.1 +/- 0.29 nmol/l, maximum binding capacity (Bmax) 89.6 +/- 18.4 fmol/mg protein (n = 3); AVP Kd 0.73 +/- 0.02 nmol/l, Bmax 26.5 +/- 8.3 fmol/mg protein (n = 3).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[10]
  • The extracted AVP and oxytocin had identical retention times to those of the synthetic peptides on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and were biologically active in assays for antidiuretic and milk-ejection activity (with potencies of 310 units/mg and 340 units/mg respectively) [10].
  • We studied the interaction properties of synthetic antisense (AS) peptides encoded in the antisense strand of DNA corresponding to the N-terminal 20-residue sequence of the biosynthetic precursor of Arg8-vasopressin (AVP) and its binding protein bovine neurophysin II (BNPII) [11].
  • In vitro biosynthesis and processing of composite common precursors containing amino acid sequences identified immunologically as neurophysin I/oxytocin and as neurophysin II/arginine vasopressin [12].
  • Because bovine ovaries produce oxytocin and arginine vasopressin the results suggest a paracrine or autocrine role for these neuropeptides in luteolysis and ovulation [13].

Anatomical context of AVP


Associations of AVP with chemical compounds

  • The binding sites were specific and saturable: studies with the V1 AVP antagonist d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP and the V2 agonist 1-deamino-8-D-AVP indicated that the AVP receptor was V1 in specificity [10].
  • Addition of AVP (1, 10, 100 or 1000 pM/ml) inhibited progesterone and stimulated a surge in estradiol, while steroid hormones did not induce AVP release [16].
  • The physiological consequences of these AVP-induced changes in inositol phosphate concentrations remain to be elucidated [14].
  • The influence of these steroids on OT and AVP release was also evaluated [16].
  • In vivo, SR 49059 inhibited the pressor response to exogenous AVP in pithed rats (intravenous) and in conscious normotensive rats (intravenous and per os) with a long duration of action (> 8 h at 10 mg/kg p.o) [8].

Physical interactions of AVP


Other interactions of AVP


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AVP

  • We describe a specific double-antibody radioimmunoassay for measuring arginine vasopressin (AVP) in human plasma [17].
  • Fractions of gel chromatography effluent and extract of SDS-PAGE gel slices were subjected to RIA for immunoreactive precursors of AVP, AVP-NP, OT, and OT-NP using specific antisera fro each molecule [23].
  • Binding affinities of sense polypeptides AVP and BNPII with AS peptides were measured by analytical affinity chromatography, in each case by the extent of chromatographic retardation of a soluble polypeptide interactor on an affinity matrix containing the other interactor as the immobilized species [11].
  • Sequential immunoprecipitation studies indicated that the Mr 21,000 product is a common precursor to neurophysin II and arginine vasopressin [24].
  • Results obtained comparing measurements of AVP in rat neural lobes by RIA and rat vasopressor assay show a correlation between RIA and bioassay of 0.9406, a slope of 1.086, and an intercept of 20 mU, suggesting good agreement for AVP determined by these two assay systems [25].


  1. Vasopressin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of hydrated and dehydrated steers. Doris, P.A., Bell, F.R. Neuroendocrinology (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Arginine vasopressin stimulation of cerebral microvascular endothelial cell Na-K-Cl cotransporter activity is V1 receptor and [Ca] dependent. O'Donnell, M.E., Duong, V., Suvatne, J., Foroutan, S., Johnson, D.M. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Volume homeostasis in calves with artificial atria and ventricles. Westenfelder, C., Birch, F.M., Baranowski, R.L., Riebman, J.B., Olsen, D.B., Burns, G.L., Kablitz, C. Am. J. Physiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Excess cortisol interferes with a principal mechanism of resistance to dehydration in Bos indicus steers. Parker, A.J., Hamlin, G.P., Coleman, C.J., Fitzpatrick, L.A. J. Anim. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Recent gene conversion involving bovine vasopressin and oxytocin precursor genes suggested by nucleotide sequence. Ruppert, S., Scherer, G., Schütz, G. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA encoding bovine arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II precursor. Land, H., Schütz, G., Schmale, H., Richter, D. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Ala-Gly- and Val-Asp-[Arg8]-vasopressin: bovine storage forms of arginine vasopressin with natriuretic activity. Gitelman, H.J., Klapper, D.G., Alderman, F.R., Blythe, W.B. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Biochemical and pharmacological properties of SR 49059, a new, potent, nonpeptide antagonist of rat and human vasopressin V1a receptors. Serradeil-Le Gal, C., Wagnon, J., Garcia, C., Lacour, C., Guiraudou, P., Christophe, B., Villanova, G., Nisato, D., Maffrand, J.P., Le Fur, G. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Affinity capture of [Arg8]vasopressin-receptor complex using immobilized antisense peptide. Lu, F.X., Aiyar, N., Chaiken, I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in the bovine adrenal gland. Nussey, S.S., Prysor-Jones, R.A., Taylor, A., Ang, V.T., Jenkins, J.S. J. Endocrinol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Recognition properties of antisense peptides to Arg8-vasopressin/bovine neurophysin II biosynthetic precursor sequences. Fassina, G., Zamai, M., Brigham-Burke, M., Chaiken, I.M. Biochemistry (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. In vitro biosynthesis and processing of composite common precursors containing amino acid sequences identified immunologically as neurophysin I/oxytocin and as neurophysin II/arginine vasopressin. Schmale, H., Richter, D. FEBS Lett. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Oxytocin and vasopressin binding sites in human and bovine ovaries. Fuchs, A.R., Behrens, O., Helmer, H., Vangsted, A., Ivanisevic, M., Grifo, J., Barros, C., Fields, M. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. The interaction of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin with bovine adrenal medulla cells. Taylor, A.H., Whitley, G.S., Nussey, S.S. J. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Oxytocin and vasopressin receptors in bovine endometrium and myometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Fuchs, A.R., Behrens, O., Helmer, H., Liu, C.H., Barros, C.M., Fields, M.J. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. The interrelationships between nonapeptide and steroid hormones secretion by bovine granulosa cells in vitro. Sirotkin, A.V., Nitray, J. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Development and evaluation of a radioimmunoassay for Arg8-vasopressin, after extraction with Sep-Pak C18. Ysewijn-Van Brussel, K.A., De Leenheer, A.P. Clin. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Mapping the binding site of arginine vasopressin to v1a and v1b vasopressin receptors. Rodrigo, J., Pena, A., Murat, B., Trueba, M., Durroux, T., Guillon, G., Rognan, D. Mol. Endocrinol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Cellular mechanism of endothelin-1 release by angiotensin and vasopressin. Emori, T., Hirata, Y., Ohta, K., Kanno, K., Eguchi, S., Imai, T., Shichiri, M., Marumo, F. Hypertension (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Isotachophoretic analysis of peptides. Selection of electrolyte systems and determination of purity. Kasicka, V., Prusík, Z. J. Chromatogr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Beta-endorphin in pituitary intraglandular colloid of intermediate lobe origin. Boyd, W.H., Jichici, D., Agro, A., Rowell, G., Gibbs, B.F. Peptides (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Relation of endogenous systemic and brain angiotensin II, arginine vasopressin and prolactin with the genesis of salt appetite in cattle. Bell, F.R., Doris, P.A., Simmonds, A. Neuroendocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Putative precursors of vasopressin, oxytocin, and neurophysins in the rat hypothalamus. Rosenior, J.C., North, W.G., Moore, G.J. Endocrinology (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. Immunological identification of a common precursor to arginine vasopressin and neurophysin II synthesized by in vitro translation of bovine hypothalamic mRNA. Schmale, H., Richter, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. Characterization of an antiserum used in a radioimmunoassay for arginine-vasopressin: implications for reference standards. North, W.G., LaRochelle, F.T., Haldar, J., Sawyer, W.H., Valtin, H. Endocrinology (1978) [Pubmed]
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