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Gene Review

TG  -  thyroglobulin

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of TG

  • The inhibitory effect of ANP on Tg mRNA level was reverted in the presence of pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of the G(i)-protein-mediated reduction of the adenylate cyclase activity [1].
  • We have characterized two stable transformed mouse cell lines (CG1 and CTG1) that express either the normal vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (G) or a truncated form of the G protein (TG) that lacks the COOH-terminal anchor sequences and is secreted from the cells [2].
  • However, neither of the two polymorphisms of candidate genes tested, DGAT1 nor TG, showed a significant (P > 0.10) association with the backfat EBV in the cattle populations examined [3].
  • Defective thyroglobulin synthesis and secretion causing goiter and hypothyroidism [4].
  • Finally, when bovine serum albumin was substituted for thyroglobulin from each of the patients, iodination of bovine serum albumin was several times greater with the particulate fraction obtained from toxic diffuse goiter tissue than with that obtained from normal tissue [5].

High impact information on TG


Chemical compound and disease context of TG

  • These results suggest that in vitro iodination of thyroglobulin is increased in toxic diffuse goiter even when patients are made euthyroid by treatment with thionamide drugs as well as when they are given additional T3 for 10 days before operation [5].
  • When thyroglobulin and particulate fractions obtained from the same patient were incubated with 125I-, iodide, glucose, and glucose oxidase, the amount of iodine bound to thyroglobulin was several times greater in toxic diffuse goiter than in normal thyroid tissue; administration of T3 did not affect iodination in toxic diffuse goiter [5].
  • In adult mice of the transgenic strain TG66.19, in which expression of herpes simplex type 1 virus thymidine kinase (HSVI-TK) is driven in thyrocytes from the thyroglobulin promoter, the drug Ganciclovir causes the death (ablation) of thyrocytes [8].
  • We established a thyroglobulin (Tg)-specific, thyroiditis-inducing T-cell clone, B12G, from B6C3F1 mice by the immunization of mouse Tg with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Klebsiella strain LEN (O3:K1) [9].

Biological context of TG

  • A nonsense mutation causes hereditary goitre in the Afrikander cattle and unmasks alternative splicing of thyroglobulin transcripts [10].
  • The hereditary goitre of Afrikander cattle is an autosomal recessive disease characterized in homozygotes by the production of abnormal thyroglobulin (Tg) and the coexistence in the thyroid of normal-sized 8.4-kilobase (kb) Tg mRNA with a misspliced 7.3-kb message having lost exon 9 [10].
  • With all these characteristics, the thyroglobulin gene is presented as a paradigm for the analysis of the fate of introns in gene evolution [11].
  • It is followed by an open reading frame providing the first data on thyroglobulin primary structure [12].
  • We have characterized the glycopeptides contained in a tryptic digest of bovine thyroglobulin in order to establish actual glycosylation sites [13].

Anatomical context of TG


Associations of TG with chemical compounds

  • Comparison of the amino terminal sequence of thyroglobulin with that of peptides known to contain thyroid hormones [7,8] demonstrated that the first tyrosine in native thyroglobulin is mainly found as thyroxine in the mature iodinated protein [8] [12].
  • While glycosylation was distributed through most of the length of the thyroglobulin sequence, no oligosaccharides containing only mannose and glucosamine were found in the N-terminal half of the molecule [13].
  • After 24 h of treatment with the cGMP analogue, N(2),2'-O-dibutyrylguanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate [(Bu)(2)cGMP] (0.1 and 1 mM), an inhibition of iodide uptake and Tg mRNA expression was obtained, evidencing a cGMP-mediated inhibitory signal in the thyroid cell [1].
  • TG in isolated globules was highly iodinated (approximately 55 iodine atoms per 12-S TG subunit) suggesting that the covalent nondisulfide cross-linking occurs in part during the iodination of TG and that this process involves the formation of intermolecular dityrosine bridges [18].
  • Mechanisms must exist which solubilize or disperse the insoluble luminal content prior to endocytosis of TG [18].

Physical interactions of TG

  • Antisera of high avidity were obtained from rabbits that had been injected with AVP coupled to bovine thyroglobulin [19].

Regulatory relationships of TG


Other interactions of TG


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TG


  1. Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits iodide uptake and thyroglobulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in cultured bovine thyroid follicles. Costamagna, M.E., Coleoni, A.H., Pellizas, C.G., Cabanillas, A.M., Vélez, M.L., Masini-Repiso, A.M. Regul. Pept. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation of stable mouse cell lines that express cell surface and secreted forms of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. Florkiewicz, R.Z., Smith, A., Bergmann, J.E., Rose, J.K. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci and assessment of positional candidate genes for backfat on bovine chromosome 14 in a commercial line of Bos taurus. Moore, S.S., Li, C., Basarab, J., Snelling, W.M., Kneeland, J., Murdoch, B., Hansen, C., Benkel, B. J. Anim. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Defective thyroglobulin synthesis and secretion causing goiter and hypothyroidism. Medeiros-Neto, G., Targovnik, H.M., Vassart, G. Endocr. Rev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Iodinating activity of thyroid tissue in toxic diffuse goiter. Nagataki, S., Uchimura, H., Ikeda, H., Kuzuya, N., Masuyama, Y. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Primary structure of bovine thyroglobulin deduced from the sequence of its 8,431-base complementary DNA. Mercken, L., Simons, M.J., Swillens, S., Massaer, M., Vassart, G. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MOPEG). Keeton, T.K., Krutzsch, H., Lovenberg, W. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Ganciclovir-induced ablation non-proliferating thyrocytes expressing herpesvirus thymidine kinase occurs by p53-independent apoptosis. Wallace, H., Clarke, A.R., Harrison, D.J., Hooper, M.L., Bishop, J.O. Oncogene (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization of a thyroiditis-inducing thyroglobulin-specific T-cell clone restricted by the H-2 molecule of a low responder mouse strain. Hiyama, Y., Kohno, Y., Hoshioka, A., Shimojo, N., Tarutani, O., Yokochi, T., Maruyama, N., Niimi, H. Immunology (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. A nonsense mutation causes hereditary goitre in the Afrikander cattle and unmasks alternative splicing of thyroglobulin transcripts. Ricketts, M.H., Simons, M.J., Parma, J., Mercken, L., Dong, Q., Vassart, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Structural organization of the 5' region of the thyroglobulin gene. Evidence for intron loss and "exonization" during evolution. Parma, J., Christophe, D., Pohl, V., Vassart, G. J. Mol. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. The 5'-end of bovine thyroglobulin mRNA encodes a hormonogenic peptide. Mercken, L., Simons, M.J., Vassart, G. FEBS Lett. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Thyroglobulin glycosylation: location and nature of the N-linked oligosaccharide units in bovine thyroglobulin. Rawitch, A.B., Pollock, H.G., Yang, S.X. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Thyroglobulin inhibition of thyrotropin binding to thyroid plasma membrane. Hashizume, K., Fenzi, G., DeGroot, L.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical localization of thyroglobulin in the thyroid gland of the anadromous sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus L., during its upstream migration. Wright, G.M., Filosa, M.F., Youson, J.H. Cell Tissue Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Fluoro-immuno-cytoadherence (FICA): A new method for the identification and enumeration of antigen-binding cells. Richter, E., Wick, G. Zeitschrift für Immunitätsforschung. Immunobiology. (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. Extrathyroidal release of thyroid hormones from thyroglobulin by J774 mouse macrophages. Brix, K., Herzog, V. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Isolation of insoluble secretory product from bovine thyroid: extracellular storage of thyroglobulin in covalently cross-linked form. Herzog, V., Berndorfer, U., Saber, Y. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Development and evaluation of a radioimmunoassay for Arg8-vasopressin, after extraction with Sep-Pak C18. Ysewijn-Van Brussel, K.A., De Leenheer, A.P. Clin. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Structural organization of the bovine thyroglobulin gene and of its 5'-flanking region. de Martynoff, G., Pohl, V., Mercken, L., van Ommen, G.J., Vassart, G. Eur. J. Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes residing on chromosomes 14 and 29 for association with carcass composition traits in Bos indicus cattle. Casas, E., White, S.N., Riley, D.G., Smith, T.P., Brenneman, R.A., Olson, T.A., Johnson, D.D., Coleman, S.W., Bennett, G.L., Chase, C.C. J. Anim. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Covalent cross-linking of secreted bovine thyroglobulin by transglutaminase. Saber-Lichtenberg, Y., Brix, K., Schmitz, A., Heuser, J.E., Wilson, J.H., Lorand, L., Herzog, V. FASEB J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Regulation of major histocompatibility complex class I gene expression in thyroid cells. Role of the cAMP response element-like sequence. Saji, M., Shong, M., Napolitano, G., Palmer, L.A., Taniguchi, S.I., Ohmori, M., Ohta, M., Suzuki, K., Kirshner, S.L., Giuliani, C., Singer, D.S., Kohn, L.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Characterization by affinity cross-linking of a receptor for atrial natriuretic peptide in cultured human thyroid cells associated with reductions in both adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate production and thyroglobulin secretion. Tseng, Y.C., Lahiri, S., Sellitti, D.F., Burman, K.D., D'Avis, J.C., Wartofsky, L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Extracellularly occurring histone H1 mediates the binding of thyroglobulin to the cell surface of mouse macrophages. Brix, K., Summa, W., Lottspeich, F., Herzog, V. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
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