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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Milk Ejection

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Disease relevance of Milk Ejection

  • Also, PRL-R AS treatment impaired maternal behaviour (P < 0.05), whereas physiological parameters of lactation (weight gain of the litter, number of milk ejection reflexes during a 20-min suckling period) were not affected [1].
  • IMP was also measured in eleven cows after injection of 0, 10 or 50 micrograms Atosiban/kg body weight: in seven during oxytocin infusions, in four after oxytocin injections in successively increasing dosages (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 10 i.u.). The occurrence of milk ejection was indicated by a rise in IMP [2].

Psychiatry related information on Milk Ejection

  • Although the neuroendocrine response to suckling was attenuated in rats receiving the OXT antagonist, maternal behavior, assessed as the time at which six to eight pups began suckling and the time from the onset until the occurrence of the third milk ejection reflex, was unaffected [3].
  • Sleep deprivation blocked milk ejection and enhanced suckling-induced PRL levels in dams that had been previously separated from their pups [4].

High impact information on Milk Ejection


Chemical compound and disease context of Milk Ejection

  • In the Oxt antisense group, there was a significant reduction in the number of milk ejection reflexes (to 34.6 +/- 4.88%, P < 0.001), as well as in the weight gain of the litter (to 18.8 +/- 6.98%, P < 0.03) compared with vehicle (100%)-, mixed base-, or vasopressin antisense-treated animals, which did not differ from each other [9].
  • None of the treated rats were able to lactate because of defects in maternal behavior and milk ejection; the litters died usually within 48 h postpartum [10].

Biological context of Milk Ejection


Anatomical context of Milk Ejection


Associations of Milk Ejection with chemical compounds

  • The correlation of the firing pattern of these neurones with milk ejection enabled distinction between oxytocin and vasopressin neurones [21].
  • Central inhibitory effects of muscimol and bicuculline on the milk ejection reflex in the anaesthetized rat [22].
  • However, in marked and unexpected contrast, application of GABA and isoguvacine facilitated or triggered milk-ejection reflex bursting activity whereas GABAA antagonists interrupted this reflex activity [17].
  • The concentration of lactose in plasma did not vary significantly during periods of suckling, or after stimulation of milk ejection by oxytocin [23].
  • No significant effect on the milk ejection reflex was seen with i.c.v. isotonic saline (n = 5) [22].

Gene context of Milk Ejection

  • A train of APWs modelled after the bursting pattern recorded from an OT-containing neurone during the milk ejection reflex was effective in supporting an exocytotic DeltaC(m) in isolated MNCs, indicating that the somata of SON neurones respond to physiological patterns of neuronal activity with Ca(2+)-dependent exocytotic activity [24].
  • Because PTHrP can cause smooth muscle relaxation, we hypothesized that the peptide might affect the contractility of the breast myoepithelial cell and thereby affect milk ejection [25].
  • The winged helix gene, Foxb1, controls development of mammary glands and regions of the CNS that regulate the milk-ejection reflex [26].
  • The extracted AVP and oxytocin had identical retention times to those of the synthetic peptides on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and were biologically active in assays for antidiuretic and milk-ejection activity (with potencies of 310 units/mg and 340 units/mg respectively) [27].
  • In conscious rats, VIP levels rose significantly from 18 +/- 5 to 102 +/- 30 pM after 5 min of suckling and to 123 +/- 25 pM after 20 min of suckling when milk ejection occurred [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Milk Ejection


  1. Increased hypothalamic expression of prolactin in lactation: involvement in behavioural and neuroendocrine stress responses. Torner, L., Toschi, N., Nava, G., Clapp, C., Neumann, I.D. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Atosiban, an oxytocin receptor blocking agent: pharmacokinetics and inhibition of milk ejection in dairy cows. Wellnitz, O., Bruckmaier, R.M., Albrecht, C., Blum, J.W. J. Dairy Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. An oxytocin receptor antagonist infused into the supraoptic nucleus attenuates intranuclear and peripheral release of oxytocin during suckling in conscious rats. Neumann, I., Koehler, E., Landgraf, R., Summy-Long, J. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Suckling-induced serum prolactin levels are modified by interference with milk ejection in lactating rats. Voloschin, L.M., Gallardo, M.G., Tramezzani, J.H. Biol. Reprod. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Relaxin affects the release of oxytocin and vasopressin from the neurohypophysis. Dayanithi, G., Cazalis, M., Nordmann, J.J. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Oxytocin induces morphological plasticity in the adult hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. Theodosis, D.T., Montagnese, C., Rodriguez, F., Vincent, J.D., Poulain, D.A. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Oxytocin is required for nursing but is not essential for parturition or reproductive behavior. Nishimori, K., Young, L.J., Guo, Q., Wang, Z., Insel, T.R., Matzuk, M.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. The winged helix gene, Mf3, is required for normal development of the diencephalon and midbrain, postnatal growth and the milk-ejection reflex. Labosky, P.A., Winnier, G.E., Jetton, T.L., Hargett, L., Ryan, A.K., Rosenfeld, M.G., Parlow, A.F., Hogan, B.L. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Rapid effect on suckling of an oxytocin antisense oligonucleotide administered into rat supraoptic nucleus. Neumann, I., Porter, D.W., Landgraf, R., Pittman, Q.J. Am. J. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of chronic thyroid hormone administration on pregnancy, lactogenesis and lactation in the rat. Rosato, R.R., Gimenez, M.S., Jahn, G.A. Acta Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Posterior pituitary lobectomy abolishes the suckling-induced rise in prolactin (PRL): evidence for a PRL-releasing factor in the posterior pituitary. Murai, I., Ben-Jonathan, N. Endocrinology (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Glutamatergic input governs periodicity and synchronization of bursting activity in oxytocin neurons in hypothalamic organotypic cultures. Israel, J.M., Le Masson, G., Theodosis, D.T., Poulain, D.A. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Deficiency in mouse oxytocin prevents milk ejection, but not fertility or parturition. Young, W.S., Shepard, E., Amico, J., Hennighausen, L., Wagner, K.U., LaMarca, M.E., McKinney, C., Ginns, E.I. J. Neuroendocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Breastfeeding: physiological, endocrine and behavioural adaptations caused by oxytocin and local neurogenic activity in the nipple and mammary gland. Uvnäs-Moberg, K., Eriksson, M. Acta Paediatr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Inhibition of oxytocin release during repeated milking in unfamiliar surroundings: the importance of opioids and adrenal cortex sensitivity. Macuhová, J., Tancin, V., Kraezl, W.D., Meyer, H.H., Bruckmaier, R.M. J. Dairy Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Relaxin affects the central control of oxytocin release. Summerlee, A.J., O'Byrne, K.T., Paisley, A.C., Breeze, M.F., Porter, D.G. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. GABA-induced facilitation of the periodic bursting activity of oxytocin neurones in suckled rats. Moos, F.C. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Chronic intracerebroventricular morphine and lactation in rats: dependence and tolerance in relation to oxytocin neurones. Rayner, V.C., Robinson, I.C., Russell, J.A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Factors governing the periodic activation of supraoptic and paraventricular neurosecretory cells during suckling in the rat. Lincoln, D.W., Wakerley, J.B. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1975) [Pubmed]
  20. The design of effective in vivo antagonists of rat uterus and milk ejection responses to oxytocin. Sawyer, W.H., Haldar, J., Gazis, D., Seto, J., Bankowski, K., Lowbridge, J., Turan, A., Manning, M. Endocrinology (1980) [Pubmed]
  21. Electrophysiological evidence for facilitatory control of oxytocin neurones by oxytocin during suckling in the rat. Freund-Mercier, M.J., Richard, P. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Central inhibitory effects of muscimol and bicuculline on the milk ejection reflex in the anaesthetized rat. Voisin, D.L., Herbison, A.E., Poulain, D.A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Lactose in plasma during lactogenesis, established lactation and weaning in sows. Hartmann, P.E., Whitely, J.L., Willcox, D.L. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Ca(2+) and frequency dependence of exocytosis in isolated somata of magnocellular supraoptic neurones of the rat hypothalamus. Soldo, B.L., Giovannucci, D.R., Stuenkel, E.L., Moises, H.C. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide production and action in a myoepithelial cell line derived from normal human breast. Seitz, P.K., Cooper, K.M., Ives, K.L., Ishizuka, J., Townsend, C.M., Rajaraman, S., Cooper, C.W. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. The winged helix gene, Foxb1, controls development of mammary glands and regions of the CNS that regulate the milk-ejection reflex. Kloetzli, J.M., Fontaine-Glover, I.A., Brown, E.R., Kuo, M., Labosky, P.A. Genesis (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in the bovine adrenal gland. Nussey, S.S., Prysor-Jones, R.A., Taylor, A., Ang, V.T., Jenkins, J.S. J. Endocrinol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and oxytocin in response to suckling, electrical stimulation of the mammary nerve and oxytocin infusion in rats. Eriksson, M., Uvnäs-Moberg, K. Neuroendocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Up-regulation of nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA in an integrated forebrain circuit involved in oxytocin secretion. Luckman, S.M., Huckett, L., Bicknell, R.J., Voisin, D.L., Herbison, A.E. Neuroscience (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Activation of the adrenal cortex or the peripheral sympatho-adrenomedullary system does not necessarily influence milk ejection in the rat. Lau, C. J. Endocrinol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Excitatory effects of intraventricular injections of oxytocin on the milk ejection reflex in the rat. Freund-Mercier, M.J., Richard, P. Neurosci. Lett. (1981) [Pubmed]
  32. Facilitation of milk ejection-related activation of oxytocin-secreting neurones by osmotic stimulation in the rat. Negoro, H., Honda, K., Uchide, K., Higuchi, T. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. Electronmicroscopic and electrophysiological studies of the teat branch of the XIII thoracic nerve: relationship with lactation in the rat. Voloschin, L.M., Décima, E., Tramezzani, J.H. J. Endocrinol. (1988) [Pubmed]
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