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Gene Review

VTN  -  vitronectin

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of VTN

  • Vitronectin receptor has a role in bone resorption but does not mediate tight sealing zone attachment of osteoclasts to the bone surface [1].
  • At this age, vitronectin immunoreactivity appeared to be located predominantly in the fiber and inner plexiform layers of the differentiated stratified retina. alpha v immunoreactivity and mRNA expression was seen associated with all layers formed by differentiated neurons, being most abundant in the ganglion cell and inner nuclear layers [2].
  • We have recently reported that the nuclei of B16 melanoma cells are intensely stained with anti-rat vitronectin (Vn) antibody, which reacts with both mouse and rat Vn [3].

High impact information on VTN

  • Function-perturbing antibodies were used to show that integrins containing the beta 1 subunit mediate HD11 cell attachment to several distinct extracellular matrix proteins, specifically fibronectin, collagen, vitronectin, and fibrinogen [4].
  • Adhesion of a chicken myeloblast cell line to fibrinogen and vitronectin through a beta 1-class integrin [4].
  • Results using function-blocking antibodies also demonstrate that on these cells, additional receptors for vitronectin are formed by alpha v beta 3 and alpha v associated with an unidentified 100-kD beta subunit [4].
  • Vitronectin receptor has previously been shown to be expressed in osteoclasts and it has been suggested that it mediates the tight attachment at the sealing zone [1].
  • These results demonstrate that vitronectin stimulates the differentiation of motor neurons in vitro and in vivo [5].

Biological context of VTN


Anatomical context of VTN


Associations of VTN with chemical compounds

  • Yolk vitronectin. Purification and differences from its blood homologue in molecular size, heparin binding, collagen binding, and bound carbohydrate [10].
  • Yolk vitronectin was purified 2,500-fold from chick egg yolk by a combination of hydroxylapatite, DEAE-cellulose, and anti-vitronectin-Sepharose column chromatographies [10].
  • Most importantly, induction of alpha v mRNA by 1,25-(OH)2D3 was mirrored by higher levels of expression of alpha v beta 3 on the cell surface, as well enhanced attachment to its substrate, vitronectin [11].
  • Quantitative analyses revealed major differences in the variety of serum proteins adsorbed to each of the immobilized indole analogs and in particular major differences in the amounts of adsorbed vitronectin [12].
  • S12911-2 dose-dependently inhibited, after a 6-day exposure, the expression of carbonic anhydrase II and vitronectin receptor in stimulated osteoclasts (46% and 40%, respectively, at 10(-3) M Sr(2+), P<0.05) [13].

Other interactions of VTN


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of VTN

  • Furthermore, genomic Southern blot studies suggest that nectinepsin and vitronectin are encoded by different genes [8].
  • A detailed investigation employing different serum compositions combined with cell blotting and immunoblotting techniques revealed that adhesion of cells to each of the immobilized indole analogs was mediated by vitronectin and fibronectin [12].
  • Western blot analysis showed that a protein with an approximate molecular weight of 75 kDa (p75), which was distinct from Vn, existed in the nuclear fraction, and, more specifically, in the nuclear matrix fraction, of NIH3T3 cells [3].


  1. Vitronectin receptor has a role in bone resorption but does not mediate tight sealing zone attachment of osteoclasts to the bone surface. Lakkakorpi, P.T., Horton, M.A., Helfrich, M.H., Karhukorpi, E.K., Väänänen, H.K. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Developmentally regulated vitronectin influences cell differentiation, neuron survival and process outgrowth in the developing chicken retina. Martínez-Morales, J.R., Martí, E., Frade, J.M., Rodríguez-Tébar, A. Neuroscience (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning and characterization of a novel zinc finger protein that associates with nuclear matrix. Lee, J.Y., Kambe, M., Hayashi, M., Takenaga, K. DNA Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Adhesion of a chicken myeloblast cell line to fibrinogen and vitronectin through a beta 1-class integrin. Neugebauer, K.M., Venstrom, K.A., Reichardt, L.F. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Vitronectin is expressed in the ventral region of the neural tube and promotes the differentiation of motor neurons. Martínez-Morales, J.R., Barbas, J.A., Martí, E., Bovolenta, P., Edgar, D., Rodríguez-Tébar, A. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of angiogenesis by the kallikrein-kinin system. Colman, R.W. Curr. Pharm. Des. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Bone acidic glycoprotein 75 inhibits resorption activity of isolated rat and chicken osteoclasts. Sato, M., Grasser, W., Harm, S., Fullenkamp, C., Gorski, J.P. FASEB J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Nectinepsin: a new extracellular matrix protein of the pexin family. Characterization of a novel cDNA encoding a protein with an RGD cell binding motif. Blancher, C., Omri, B., Bidou, L., Pessac, B., Crisanti, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Syndecan-4 core protein is sufficient for the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. Echtermeyer, F., Baciu, P.C., Saoncella, S., Ge, Y., Goetinck, P.F. J. Cell. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Yolk vitronectin. Purification and differences from its blood homologue in molecular size, heparin binding, collagen binding, and bound carbohydrate. Nagano, Y., Hamano, T., Nakashima, N., Ishikawa, M., Miyazaki, K., Hayashi, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 up-regulates expression of the osteoclast integrin alpha v beta 3. Medhora, M.M., Teitelbaum, S., Chappel, J., Alvarez, J., Mimura, H., Ross, F.P., Hruska, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Mechanisms of serum protein binding and cell anchorage to immobilized serotonin and indole analogs. Hannan, G.N., Reilly, W., McAuslan, B.R. Exp. Cell Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. In vitro effects of S12911-2 on osteoclast function and bone marrow macrophage differentiation. Baron, R., Tsouderos, Y. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Potential role for insulin-like growth factor II and vitronectin in the endothelial-mesenchymal transition process. Arciniegas, E., Neves, Y.C., Carrillo, L.M. Differentiation (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Radial glia produce and align the ligand fibronectin during neuronal migration in the developing chick brain. Stettler, E.M., Galileo, D.S. J. Comp. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Survival and process regrowth of purified chick retinal ganglion cells cultured in a growth factor lacking medium at low density. Modulation by extracellular matrix proteins. Brocco, M.A., Panzetta, P. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
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