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Gene Review

MRC1  -  mannose receptor, C type 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: C-type lectin domain family 13 member D, C-type lectin domain family 13 member D-like, CD206, CLEC13D, CLEC13DL, ...
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Disease relevance of MRC1

  • Expression and function of the mannose receptor CD206 on epidermal dendritic cells in inflammatory skin diseases [1].
  • BACKGROUND: The administration of the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole-cell pertussis (DTP) vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine has been associated with adverse neurologic events, including seizures [2].
  • The number of febrile seizures attributable to the administration of DTP and MMR vaccines was estimated to be 6 to 9 and 25 to 34 per 100,000 children, respectively [2].
  • A study of 301 children who had been immunized two to 19 months previously with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine at 36 different sites in San Antonio, Tex, including physicians' offices and clinics, revealed that 99.7% had antibody against rubella and 98.3% had antibody against measles and mumps [3].
  • Falls in levels of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) immunisation in the UK and the continuing debate on how to respond to this situation emphasise the importance of identifying and understanding the factors that affect the uptake of recommended childhood immunisations [4].

Psychiatry related information on MRC1

  • Self-assessment of immediate post-vaccination pain after two different MMR vaccines administered as a second dose in 4- to 6-year-old children [5].
  • AIMS: To explore parents' accounts of decision making relating to the MMR vaccine controversy, identifying uptake determinants and education needs [6].
  • For mild mental retardation (MMR; that is, IQ = 50 to 75), prevalence was 3.54/1000, and for severe mental retardation (SMR; that is, IQ < 50), it was 3.64/1000 [7].
  • Although organic and psychological factors are very important, the study of MMR needs to recognize its primarily social nature, reflecting determinants of selection into MMR status in legal, organizational and professional structures, activities and attitudes characteristic of particular communities and cultures [8].

High impact information on MRC1

  • Antibody response following customary use of MMR vaccine [9].
  • Neomycin sensitivity and the MMR vaccine [10].
  • RPC components include the essential initiation and elongation factor, Cdc45, the checkpoint mediator Mrc1, the Tof1-Csm3 complex that allows replication forks to pause at protein-DNA barriers, the histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) and Ctf4, which helps to establish sister chromatid cohesion [11].
  • Mrc1 associates with Cds1 and is required for regulation of Cds1 by the checkpoint kinase Rad3 [12].
  • We propose that coordinated expression of Mrc1 with replication control proteins helps to ensure activation of the appropriate checkpoint response during DNA replication [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of MRC1


Biological context of MRC1


Anatomical context of MRC1

  • Assignment of the human macrophage mannose receptor gene (MRC1) to 10p13 by in situ hybridization and PCR-based somatic cell hybrid mapping [18].
  • Six months after femoral nerve transfer, muscle power of the interosseous muscles and adductor pollicis recovered to MRC3, whereas that of the abductor pollicis brevis recovered to MRC1 to 2 [19].
  • In conclusion, inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells but not Langerhans cells are expressing CD206 in situ and use it for receptor-mediated endocytosis [1].
  • The increased candidacidal activity of IFN-gamma-activated macrophages was associated with reduced expression of MMR by a mean of 79% and decreased pinocytic uptake of 125I-mannosylated BSA by 73%; K(uptake) of pinocytosis was not changed [17].
  • These results implicate MMR-independent and mannose 6-phosphate receptor-independent pathways in phLAL uptake and delivery to lysosomes in vivo [20].

Associations of MRC1 with chemical compounds

  • The gene for the human macrophage mannose receptor (MRC1) has been characterized by isolation of clones covering the entire coding region [21].
  • In an attempt to define the signal transduction mechanisms responsible for MMR-mediated G(2) arrest, we examined the levels of tyrosine 15 phosphorylation of cdc2 (phospho-Tyr15-cdc2), a key regulator of the G(2)-M transition [22].
  • However, unlike the MMR-dependent damage tolerance response to 6-thioguanine exposures, no significant difference in the clonogenic survival of MMR-deficient cells compared with MMR-proficient cells was noted after high-dose-rate IR [22].
  • Curosurf and both saturated surfactant PC species downregulated CD14 expression and upregulated CD206 [23].
  • RESULTS: Quantification of MMR mRNA showed a statistically significant higher expression in NPs compared to CS without NP and controls [24].

Other interactions of MRC1

  • Four to five years of follow-up revealed that the muscle power of the interosseous muscles and adductor pollicis was MRC2 in one case, MRC1 in three cases, and MRC0 in one case [19].
  • Mrc1 channels the DNA replication arrest signal to checkpoint kinase Cds1 [12].
  • In addition, CRP dramatically down-regulated expression of the antigen-uptake molecules CD205 and CD206, resulting in reduced DC endocytosis [25].
  • On the other hand, HIV replication strongly repressed CD206 and CD163 expression, thus clearly orientating macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype, but independently of TNF [26].
  • In addition to the immunocytochemical detection of Langerin, we examined the expression profiles of CD1a and the macrophage tandem-repeat mannose receptor (CD206) [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MRC1

  • We calculated the relative risks of febrile and nonfebrile seizures among 679,942 children after 340,386 vaccinations with DTP vaccine, 137,457 vaccinations with MMR vaccine, or no recent vaccination [2].
  • BACKGROUND: We undertook an epidemiological study to investigate whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine may be causally associated with autism [28].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Prick skin tests were positive to 1:10 wt/vol dilutions of MMR vaccine and gelatin but negative to egg [29].
  • Immunoblotting confirmed the presence of IgE antibodies to multiple gelatin components as well as to MMR vaccine components [29].
  • By immunoassay, her serum IgE antibodies were elevated to both MMR vaccine and gelatin, but not to isolated MMR antigens [29].


  1. Expression and function of the mannose receptor CD206 on epidermal dendritic cells in inflammatory skin diseases. Wollenberg, A., Mommaas, M., Oppel, T., Schottdorf, E.M., Günther, S., Moderer, M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. The risk of seizures after receipt of whole-cell pertussis or measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. Barlow, W.E., Davis, R.L., Glasser, J.W., Rhodes, P.H., Thompson, R.S., Mullooly, J.P., Black, S.B., Shinefield, H.R., Ward, J.I., Marcy, S.M., DeStefano, F., Chen, R.T., Immanuel, V., Pearson, J.A., Vadheim, C.M., Rebolledo, V., Christakis, D., Benson, P.J., Lewis, N. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Antibody response following measles-mumps-rubella vaccine under conditions of customary use. Brunell, P.A., Weigle, K., Murphy, M.D., Shehab, Z., Cobb, E. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Factors affecting uptake of childhood immunisation: a Bayesian synthesis of qualitative and quantitative evidence. Roberts, K.A., Dixon-Woods, M., Fitzpatrick, R., Abrams, K.R., Jones, D.R. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Self-assessment of immediate post-vaccination pain after two different MMR vaccines administered as a second dose in 4- to 6-year-old children. Wood, C., von Baeyer, C.L., Bourrillon, A., Dejos-Conant, V., Clyti, N., Abitbol, V. Vaccine (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Managing controversy through consultation: a qualitative study of communication and trust around MMR vaccination decisions. McMurray, R., Cheater, F.M., Weighall, A., Nelson, C., Schweiger, M., Mukherjee, S. The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Mental retardation in teenagers: prevalence data from the Niagara region, Ontario. Bradley, E.A., Thompson, A., Bryson, S.E. Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Epidemiological issues in mental retardation. Fryers, T. Journal of mental deficiency research. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Antibody response following customary use of MMR vaccine. Balfour, H.H., Edelman, C.K., Amren, D.P. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Neomycin sensitivity and the MMR vaccine. Rietschel, R.L., Bernier, R. JAMA (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. GINS maintains association of Cdc45 with MCM in replisome progression complexes at eukaryotic DNA replication forks. Gambus, A., Jones, R.C., Sanchez-Diaz, A., Kanemaki, M., van Deursen, F., Edmondson, R.D., Labib, K. Nat. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Mrc1 channels the DNA replication arrest signal to checkpoint kinase Cds1. Tanaka, K., Russell, P. Nat. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Rapid determination of MICs of 15 antichlamydial agents by using an enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme). Bianchi, A., Scieux, C., Salmeron, C.M., Casin, I., Perol, Y. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Vaccination associated thrombocytopenic purpura in children. Rajantie, J., Zeller, B., Treutiger, I., Rosthöj, S. Vaccine (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. No epidemiological evidence for infant vaccinations to cause allergic disease. Koppen, S., de Groot, R., Neijens, H.J., Nagelkerke, N., van Eden, W., Rümke, H.C. Vaccine (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Clustering of cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus occurring 2-4 years after vaccination is consistent with clustering after infections and progression to type 1 diabetes mellitus in autoantibody positive individuals. Classen, J.B., Classen, D.C. Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Enhancement of macrophage candidacidal activity by interferon-gamma. Increased phagocytosis, killing, and calcium signal mediated by a decreased number of mannose receptors. Maródi, L., Schreiber, S., Anderson, D.C., MacDermott, R.P., Korchak, H.M., Johnston, R.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Assignment of the human macrophage mannose receptor gene (MRC1) to 10p13 by in situ hybridization and PCR-based somatic cell hybrid mapping. Eichbaum, Q., Clerc, P., Bruns, G., McKeon, F., Ezekowitz, R.A. Genomics (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Femoral nerve transfer for treatment of brachial plexus root avulsion. Gu, Y.D., Cheng, X.M., Chen, D.S., Zhang, G.M., Xu, J.G., Chen, L., Zhang, L.Y., Cai, P.Q. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. The role of mannosylated enzyme and the mannose receptor in enzyme replacement therapy. Du, H., Levine, M., Ganesa, C., Witte, D.P., Cole, E.S., Grabowski, G.A. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Organization of the gene encoding the human macrophage mannose receptor (MRC1). Kim, S.J., Ruiz, N., Bezouska, K., Drickamer, K. Genomics (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Loss of DNA mismatch repair imparts defective cdc2 signaling and G(2) arrest responses without altering survival after ionizing radiation. Yan, T., Schupp, J.E., Hwang, H.S., Wagner, M.W., Berry, S.E., Strickfaden, S., Veigl, M.L., Sedwick, W.D., Boothman, D.A., Kinsella, T.J. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Differential effect of surfactant and its saturated phosphatidylcholines on human blood macrophages. Gille, C., Spring, B., Bernhard, W., Gebhard, C., Basile, D., Lauber, K., Poets, C.F., Orlikowsky, T.W. J. Lipid Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. Macrophage mannose receptor in chronic sinus disease. Claeys, S., De Belder, T., Holtappels, G., Gevaert, P., Verhasselt, B., Van Cauwenberge, P., Bachert, C. Allergy (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. C-reactive protein impairs human CD14(+) monocyte-derived dendritic cell differentiation, maturation and function. Zhang, R., Becnel, L., Li, M., Chen, C., Yao, Q. Eur. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Macrophage activation and human immunodeficiency virus infection: HIV replication directs macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype while previous activation modulates macrophage susceptibility to infection and viral production. Porcheray, F., Samah, B., Léone, C., Dereuddre-Bosquet, N., Gras, G. Virology (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Diagnostic relevance of Langerin detection in cells from bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Smetana, K., Mericka, O., Saeland, S., Homolka, J., Brabec, J., Gabius, H.J. Virchows Arch. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Autism and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: no epidemiological evidence for a causal association. Taylor, B., Miller, E., Farrington, C.P., Petropoulos, M.C., Favot-Mayaud, I., Li, J., Waight, P.A. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Anaphylaxis to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine mediated by IgE to gelatin. Kelso, J.M., Jones, R.T., Yunginger, J.W. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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