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Gene Review

PCBP1  -  poly(rC) binding protein 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Alpha-CP1, HEL-S-85, HNRPE1, HNRPX, Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1, ...
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Disease relevance of PCBP1


High impact information on PCBP1

  • Transfection of hnRNP K and hnRNP E1 into HeLa cells specifically silenced the translation of reporter mRNAs bearing a differentiation control element in their 3' untranslated region [6].
  • Human cervical carcinoma cells exhibited progressively increasing upregulation of FRs after shifting of folate-replete cells to low-folate media, without a proportionate rise in FR mRNA or rise in hnRNP E1 [7].
  • Epitope-tagged recombinant alpha CP-1 and alpha CP-2 expressed in cells are each incorporated into the alpha-complex [8].
  • The new determinant is positioned on an mRNA half-stem opposite a pyrimidine-rich sequence targeted by alphaCP/hnRNP-E, a factor that plays a critical role in stabilizing human alpha-globin mRNA [9].
  • The interactions of PTB-1 and PCBP1 with their cognate binding sites on the IRES disrupt many of the RNA-RNA interactions, and this creates a largely unstructured region of approximately 40 nucleotides that could permit ribosome binding [10].

Biological context of PCBP1


Anatomical context of PCBP1


Associations of PCBP1 with chemical compounds

  • The binding of very low, low, and high density lipoproteins to Sepharose-PCBP was Ca2+-dependent, and the bound lipoproteins were quantitatively eluted by a phosphorylcholine gradient [18].
  • Amino acid microsequencing of two cyanogen bromide-generated peptide fragments of the 43-kDa trans-factor revealed complete identity with 43-kDa heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP E1) [19].
  • The effect of selective modification of lysine residues by acetoacetylation and of arginine residues by cyclohexanedione on the binding of low density lipoproteins to Sepharose-PCBP was examined [18].
  • Rat serum phosphorylcholine-binding protein (PCBP), a member of the pentraxin family of proteins, was previously shown to bind multilamellar liposomes prepared with egg phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine [18].
  • Removal of sialic acid from PCBP also had no effect on the binding of low density lipoproteins to immobilized-desialylated PCBP column [18].

Regulatory relationships of PCBP1

  • Furthermore, we performed refined mapping to elucidate the core region (-317/-304) involved in mediating the PCBP-induced MOR promoter activity [20].

Other interactions of PCBP1

  • Using RNA gel shift assays and UV cross-linking, we have detected three cellular proteins interacting specifically with the sense strand of the L2 mRNA, two of which were identified as heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) and the poly(rC) binding- protein (PCBP) [21].
  • Here, we report the cloning of four members of the poly(C) binding protein (PCBP) family and show that the 26-bp polypyrimidine stretch in MOR proximal promoter interacts with these PCBPs and activates MOR transcription [20].
  • An examination of 5' truncated templates and synthetic promoters constituted from individual factor-binding sites apposed to the alpha-TATAA box showed that the binding elements of three factors (alpha-CP1, alpha-IRP, and NF-E1) mediate four- to sixfold activation of transcription in vitro [22].
  • These include the alternatively spliced isoforms D01 and D02 of the hnRNP D proteins, the E0 isoform of the hnRNP E proteins, and LRP130, a previously reported protein with unknown function that appears to have a novel type of RNA-binding domain [23].
  • A 93 kDa protein from lung cytosol, which was selected by DICE2 binding, was able to suppress translational inhibition of 15-LOX mRNA2, but not of 15-LOX mRNA1, by hnRNP E1 [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PCBP1

  • CONCLUSION: These results are consistent with a hypothesis that reduced hnRNP-E1 expression may be permissive for HPV proliferation and progression to cervical cancer, and support the need for prospective longitudinal studies of hnRNP-E1 expression in HPV-16 infected women [13].
  • Purified specific rabbit anti-hnRNP E1 peptide antibodies (generated against a synthetic oligopeptide that was not represented in microsequenced peptides of the trans-factor) also recognized the purified trans-factor on Western blots [19].
  • Overexpression of hnRNP E1 or microinjection of exogenous hnRNP E1 in neural cells inhibits translation of A2RE mRNA, but not of non-A2RE RNA [25].
  • Gel filtration analysis of the incubation products from the LDL-receptor assay showed a concentration dependent binding of 125I-PCBP to LDL [26].
  • 9. On immunodiffusion, antiserum to the snail phosphorylcholine binding protein did not cross-react against other phosphorylcholine binding proteins, like rat serum phosphorylcholine-binding protein (PCBP), limulus C-reactive protein (CRP), or human CRP [27].


  1. Poly(rC) binding protein 2 binds to stem-loop IV of the poliovirus RNA 5' noncoding region: identification by automated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Blyn, L.B., Swiderek, K.M., Richards, O., Stahl, D.C., Semler, B.L., Ehrenfeld, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. The N-terminal K homology domain of the poly(rC)-binding protein is a major determinant for binding to the poliovirus 5'-untranslated region and acts as an inhibitor of viral translation. Silvera, D., Gamarnik, A.V., Andino, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. A posttranscriptional regulator of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus interacts with RNA-binding protein PCBP1 and controls gene expression through the IRES. Nishimura, K., Ueda, K., Guwanan, E., Sakakibara, S., Do, E., Osaki, E., Yada, K., Okuno, T., Yamanishi, K. Virology (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of the poly(C) binding protein in the complex associated with the 3' untranslated region of erythropoietin messenger RNA. Czyzyk-Krzeska, M.F., Bendixen, A.C. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. RNA-binding proteins heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, E1, and K are involved in post-transcriptional control of collagen I and III synthesis. Thiele, B.J., Doller, A., Kähne, T., Pregla, R., Hetzer, R., Regitz-Zagrosek, V. Circ. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. mRNA silencing in erythroid differentiation: hnRNP K and hnRNP E1 regulate 15-lipoxygenase translation from the 3' end. Ostareck, D.H., Ostareck-Lederer, A., Wilm, M., Thiele, B.J., Mann, M., Hentze, M.W. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Translational upregulation of folate receptors is mediated by homocysteine via RNA-heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 interactions. Antony, A., Tang, Y.S., Khan, R.A., Biju, M.P., Xiao, X., Li, Q.J., Sun, X.L., Jayaram, H.N., Stabler, S.P. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of two KH domain proteins in the alpha-globin mRNP stability complex. Kiledjian, M., Wang, X., Liebhaber, S.A. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. A nucleolin-binding 3' untranslated region element stabilizes beta-globin mRNA in vivo. Jiang, Y., Xu, X.S., Russell, J.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Bag-1 internal ribosome entry segment activity is promoted by structural changes mediated by poly(rC) binding protein 1 and recruitment of polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1. Pickering, B.M., Mitchell, S.A., Spriggs, K.A., Stoneley, M., Willis, A.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein and poly r(C) binding protein 1 interact with the BAG-1 IRES and stimulate its activity in vitro and in vivo. Pickering, B.M., Mitchell, S.A., Evans, J.R., Willis, A.E. Nucleic Acids Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Control of mRNA translation and stability in haematopoietic cells: the function of hnRNPs K and E1/E2. Ostareck-Lederer, A., Ostareck, D.H. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression of folate receptors and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 in women with human papillomavirus mediated transformation of cervical tissue to cancer. Pillai, M.R., Chacko, P., Kesari, L.A., Jayaprakash, P.G., Jayaram, H.N., Antony, A.C. J. Clin. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Two functional complexes formed by KH domain containing proteins with the 5' noncoding region of poliovirus RNA. Gamarnik, A.V., Andino, R. RNA (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. The DICE-binding activity of KH domain 3 of hnRNP K is affected by c-Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation. Messias, A.C., Harnisch, C., Ostareck-Lederer, A., Sattler, M., Ostareck, D.H. J. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of cellular 15-lipoxygenase activity on pretranslational, translational, and posttranslational levels. Kühn, H., Heydeck, D., Brinckman, R., Trebus, F. Lipids (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Primary small-intestinal lymphomas in Taiwan: immunoproliferative small-intestinal disease and nonimmunoproliferative small-intestinal disease. Shih, L.Y., Liaw, S.J., Dunn, P., Kuo, T.T. J. Clin. Oncol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. A study on the selective binding of apoprotein B- and E-containing human plasma lipoproteins to immobilized rat serum phosphorylcholine-binding protein. Saxena, U., Nagpurkar, A., Dolphin, P.J., Mookerjea, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Isolation and characterization of a folate receptor mRNA-binding trans-factor from human placenta. Evidence favoring identity with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1. Xiao, X., Tang, Y.S., Mackins, J.Y., Sun, X.L., Jayaram, H.N., Hansen, D.K., Antony, A.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Poly(C) binding protein family is a transcription factor in mu-opioid receptor gene expression. Kim, S.S., Pandey, K.K., Choi, H.S., Kim, S.Y., Law, P.Y., Wei, L.N., Loh, H.H. Mol. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Translational inhibition in vitro of human papillomavirus type 16 L2 mRNA mediated through interaction with heterogenous ribonucleoprotein K and poly(rC)-binding proteins 1 and 2. Collier, B., Goobar-Larsson, L., Sokolowski, M., Schwartz, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Promoter elements and erythroid cell nuclear factors that regulate alpha-globin gene transcription in vitro. Kim, C.G., Swendeman, S.L., Barnhart, K.M., Sheffery, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Distinct RNP complexes of shuttling hnRNP proteins with pre-mRNA and mRNA: candidate intermediates in formation and export of mRNA. Mili, S., Shu, H.J., Zhao, Y., Piñol-Roma, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Tissue-specific translational regulation of alternative rabbit 15-lipoxygenase mRNAs differing in their 3'-untranslated regions. Thiele, B.J., Berger, M., Huth, A., Reimann, I., Schwarz, K., Thiele, H. Nucleic Acids Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) E1 binds to hnRNP A2 and inhibits translation of A2 response element mRNAs. Kosturko, L.D., Maggipinto, M.J., Korza, G., Lee, J.W., Carson, J.H., Barbarese, E. Mol. Biol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Inhibition of the binding of low density lipoproteins to liver membrane receptors by rat serum phosphorylcholine binding protein. Saxena, U., Nagpurkar, A., Mookerjea, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Isolation of a phosphoryl choline-binding protein from the hemolymph of the snail, Achatina fulica. Mandal, C., Biswas, M., Nagpurkar, A., Mookerjea, S. Dev. Comp. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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