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Gene Review

HNRNPK  -  heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CSBP, HNRPK, Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, TUNP, Transformation up-regulated nuclear protein, ...
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Disease relevance of HNRPK


High impact information on HNRPK

  • Induction of hnRNP K ensues through the inhibition of its ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation mediated by the ubiquitin E3 ligase HDM2/MDM2 [6].
  • Strikingly, hnRNP K depletion abrogates transcriptional induction of p53 target genes and causes defects in DNA-damage-induced cell-cycle-checkpoint arrests [6].
  • Transfection of hnRNP K and hnRNP E1 into HeLa cells specifically silenced the translation of reporter mRNAs bearing a differentiation control element in their 3' untranslated region [7].
  • Silenced LOX mRNA in rabbit reticulocytes specifically coimmunoprecipitated with hnRNP K [7].
  • mRNA silencing in erythroid differentiation: hnRNP K and hnRNP E1 regulate 15-lipoxygenase translation from the 3' end [7].

Biological context of HNRPK


Anatomical context of HNRPK

  • Mechanistically, we demonstrate that decreased internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent Myc mRNA translation accounts for the phenotypic changes induced by inhibition of the BCR/ABL-ERK-dependent HNRPK translation-regulatory function [1].
  • Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein associates with multiple mitochondrial transcripts within the organelle [13].
  • Acidic nuclear proteins (M(r) between 64,000 and 66,000; pI 4.9 to 5.5) that are highly upregulated in transformed cells and that belong to the hnRNP-K family have been identified using a monoclonal antibody (mAB B4B6) that distinguish between quiescent and proliferating human keratinocytes [14].
  • These proteins are involved in the translational control and stabilization of mRNAs in erythroid cells. hnRNP E1 and hnRNP K regulate the translation of reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase (r15-LOX) mRNA [15].
  • In this study, we analyzed proteins of Ramos B cell line that are altered upon BCR activation with anti-IgM antibody, revealing that a certain hnRNP K isoform is up-regulated in response to anti-IgM treatment [16].

Associations of HNRPK with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of HNRPK


Regulatory relationships of HNRPK

  • hnRNP-K and Pur(alpha) act together to repress the transcriptional activity of the CD43 gene promoter [20].
  • The PDGF induced protein destabilization through the regulation of hnRNP-K controlled ubiquitin -ligase translation identifies a novel pathway by which external stimuli can regulate phenotypic development through rapid, organelle-specific changes in the activity and stability of cytoskeletal regulators [21].

Other interactions of HNRPK


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HNRPK


  1. A MAPK/HNRPK pathway controls BCR/ABL oncogenic potential by regulating MYC mRNA translation. Notari, M., Neviani, P., Santhanam, R., Blaser, B.W., Chang, J.S., Galietta, A., Willis, A.E., Roy, D.C., Caligiuri, M.A., Marcucci, G., Perrotti, D. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Physical map of human 6p21.2-6p21.3: region flanking the centromeric end of the major histocompatibility complex. Tripodis, N., Mason, R., Humphray, S.J., Davies, A.F., Herberg, J.A., Trowsdale, J., Nizetic, D., Senger, G., Ragoussis, J. Genome Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Hepatitis C virus core protein interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K. Hsieh, T.Y., Matsumoto, M., Chou, H.C., Schneider, R., Hwang, S.B., Lee, A.S., Lai, M.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) as a repressor of C/EBPbeta-mediated gene activation. Miau, L.H., Chang, C.J., Shen, B.J., Tsai, W.H., Lee, S.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Editing of hnRNP K protein mRNA in colorectal adenocarcinoma and surrounding mucosa. Klimek-Tomczak, K., Mikula, M., Dzwonek, A., Paziewska, A., Karczmarski, J., Hennig, E., Bujnicki, J.M., Bragoszewski, P., Denisenko, O., Bomsztyk, K., Ostrowski, J. Br. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. hnRNP K: an HDM2 target and transcriptional coactivator of p53 in response to DNA damage. Moumen, A., Masterson, P., O'Connor, M.J., Jackson, S.P. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. mRNA silencing in erythroid differentiation: hnRNP K and hnRNP E1 regulate 15-lipoxygenase translation from the 3' end. Ostareck, D.H., Ostareck-Lederer, A., Wilm, M., Thiele, B.J., Mann, M., Hentze, M.W. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Nova, the paraneoplastic Ri antigen, is homologous to an RNA-binding protein and is specifically expressed in the developing motor system. Buckanovich, R.J., Posner, J.B., Darnell, R.B. Neuron (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. c-Src-mediated phosphorylation of hnRNP K drives translational activation of specifically silenced mRNAs. Ostareck-Lederer, A., Ostareck, D.H., Cans, C., Neubauer, G., Bomsztyk, K., Superti-Furga, G., Hentze, M.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Asymmetric Arginine Dimethylation of Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K by Protein-arginine Methyltransferase 1 Inhibits Its Interaction with c-Src. Ostareck-Lederer, A., Ostareck, D.H., Rucknagel, K.P., Schierhorn, A., Moritz, B., Huttelmaier, S., Flach, N., Handoko, L., Wahle, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. An RNA helicase, DDX1, interacting with poly(A) RNA and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K. Chen, H.C., Lin, W.C., Tsay, Y.G., Lee, S.C., Chang, C.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Functional interaction of Sam68 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K. Yang, J.P., Reddy, T.R., Truong, K.T., Suhasini, M., Wong-Staal, F. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein associates with multiple mitochondrial transcripts within the organelle. Ostrowski, J., Wyrwicz, L., Rychlewski, L., Bomsztyk, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification, molecular cloning, expression and chromosome mapping of a family of transformation upregulated hnRNP-K proteins derived by alternative splicing. Dejgaard, K., Leffers, H., Rasmussen, H.H., Madsen, P., Kruse, T.A., Gesser, B., Nielsen, H., Celis, J.E. J. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. The DICE-binding activity of KH domain 3 of hnRNP K is affected by c-Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation. Messias, A.C., Harnisch, C., Ostareck-Lederer, A., Sattler, M., Ostareck, D.H. J. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Anti-IgM induces up-regulation and tyrosine-phosphorylation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K proteins (hnRNP K) in a Ramos B cell line. Jeon, H.K., Ahn, J.H., Choe, J., Park, J.H., Lee, T.H. Immunol. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification of two proteins that bind to a pyrimidine-rich sequence in the 3'-untranslated region of GAP-43 mRNA. Irwin, N., Baekelandt, V., Goritchenko, L., Benowitz, L.I. Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein k modulates angiotensinogen gene expression in kidney cells. Wei, C.C., Zhang, S.L., Chen, Y.W., Guo, D.F., Ingelfinger, J.R., Bomsztyk, K., Chan, J.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Epidermal growth factor increases the interaction between nucleolin and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K/poly(C) binding protein 1 complex to regulate the gastrin mRNA turnover. Lee, P.T., Liao, P.C., Chang, W.C., Tseng, J.T. Mol. Biol. Cell (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. hnRNP-K and Pur(alpha) act together to repress the transcriptional activity of the CD43 gene promoter. Da Silva, N., Bharti, A., Shelley, C.S. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. PDGF regulates the actin cytoskeleton through hnRNP-K-mediated activation of the ubiquitin E(3)-ligase MIR. Nagano, K., Bornhauser, B.C., Warnasuriya, G., Entwistle, A., Cramer, R., Lindholm, D., Naaby-Hansen, S. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Interaction of two multifunctional proteins. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K and Y-box-binding protein. Shnyreva, M., Schullery, D.S., Suzuki, H., Higaki, Y., Bomsztyk, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Translational inhibition in vitro of human papillomavirus type 16 L2 mRNA mediated through interaction with heterogenous ribonucleoprotein K and poly(rC)-binding proteins 1 and 2. Collier, B., Goobar-Larsson, L., Sokolowski, M., Schwartz, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Nuclear shift of hnRNP K protein in neoplasms and other states of enhanced cell proliferation. Ostrowski, J., Bomsztyk, K. Br. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Crystallization, microPIXE and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the complex between the third KH domain of hnRNP K and single-stranded DNA. Backe, P.H., Ravelli, R.B., Garman, E., Cusack, S. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. hnRNP K binds a core polypyrimidine element in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) promoter, and its regulation of eIF4E contributes to neoplastic transformation. Lynch, M., Chen, L., Ravitz, M.J., Mehtani, S., Korenblat, K., Pazin, M.J., Schmidt, E.V. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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