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Gene Review

CCAR1  -  cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CARP-1, CARP1, Cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein 1, Cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator protein 1, DIS, ...
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Disease relevance of CCAR1

  • We utilized this system to assess the precise location of DIS/DLS in the 5' region of the HIV-1 genome with minimum effect on RNA packaging [1].
  • Recently, we demonstrated that duplication of the DIS/DLS region in viral RNA caused the production of partially monomeric RNAs in virions, indicating that the region indeed mediated RNA-RNA interaction [1].
  • The dimer initiation site/dimer linkage sequence (DIS/DLS) region in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA genome is suggested to play important roles in various steps of the virus life cycle [1].
  • In confirmation and extension of observations by Carp and his associates, brain tissue and sera from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were found to harbor an agent which induces a transitory depression in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in mice as well as in rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs [2].
  • Purpose: To evaluate the extent of distal intramural spread (DIS) after preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer [3].

Psychiatry related information on CCAR1

  • 3. There were 1.4 million persons admitted to at least one inpatient mental health or addiction setting during a 1-year period; 80% of them had a current DIS/DSM-III disorder, and the remainder had a history of psychiatric disorder or significant psychiatric symptoms [4].
  • Based on a morbidity cutoff index of 50 on the SDS and a positive DIS for depression, 112 patients (13%) were found to have a depressive disorder [5].
  • We examined the symptom profiles and rates of comorbidity of panic attacks and DIS/DSM-III major depressive disorder in a population-based sample from four sites of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program (n = 12,668) [6].
  • A majority of the DIS-negative schizophrenic subjects acknowledged significant psychopathology in the DIS and missed only one of the six DSM-III criteria items for schizophrenia [7].
  • METHODS: We used a sample of 2914 community residents aged 18 or older who participated in the Duke University Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study to explore the relationship between both social and personal resources and the prevalence of DIS/DSM-III phobic disorder [8].

High impact information on CCAR1

  • CARP-1 in the culture medium showed no cytotoxicity against HeLa and TMK-1 cells; however, introduction of this protein by electroporation induced apoptosis in these cells [9].
  • Neither the nucleotide nor the deduced amino acid sequence of CARP-1 showed homology with pierisin-1 or -2 [9].
  • However, a glutamic acid residue (E128) at the putative NAD-binding site, conserved in all ADP-ribosyltransferases, was found in CARP-1, and replacement of aspartic acid for this glutamic acid resulted in loss of almost all ADP-ribosylating activity [9].
  • The protein synthesized in vitro from the cDNA in a reticulocyte lysate exhibited the same ADP-ribosylating activity as that of purified CARP-1 [9].
  • Treatments with CD437 or chemotherapeutic agent adriamycin, as well as serum deprivation of HBC cells, stimulate CARP-1 expression [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of CCAR1


Biological context of CCAR1

  • Thus, apoptosis induction by CARP-1 involves sequestration of 14-3-3 and CARP-1-mediated altered expression of multiple cell cycle regulatory genes [10].
  • Based on our quantitative structure-activity relationship study of MDRR agents, some compounds with desired substructural features and activity were identified from the MACCS-II and National Cancer Institute DIS databases and tested experimentally [14].
  • Well-known examples include the TAR hairpin that forms the binding site for the viral Tat trans-activator protein and the DIS hairpin that is important for dimerization and subsequent packaging of the viral RNA into virion particles [15].
  • CARP-1 overexpression inhibited FAK-397 phosphorylation [16].
  • The algorithm reliably discriminated between pairs DIS, CON+ and CON- among the cohort of deltaF508 homozygotes [17].

Anatomical context of CCAR1

  • Among the 11 clinically complete responders, DIS was found 1 to 5 mm from the microscopically detected ulceration of the mucosa in 5 patients [3].
  • The DIS pacemakers closely resemble the pacemakers connected to the through-conducting nerve net [18].
  • After dry immersion, percentage of muscle fibers containing type I MHC decreased by 6% (p<0.05) in group DI, but was not changed significantly in group DIS [19].

Associations of CCAR1 with chemical compounds

  • The latent dimensionality of DIS/DSM-III-R nicotine dependence: exploratory analyses [20].
  • The high wear rate emphasized that medical-grade zirconia (Y-TZP according to ISO/ DIS 13356) should not be used for acetabular cups [21].
  • The GEE method identified C2 (MG2) as important for Q2 but only marginally important for Q1 and not important for DIS [22].
  • AIM: To value whether omeprazole could induce the healing of DIS and regression of symptoms in patients with DGER [23].
  • The GEE method identified C5 (MG1) as important for the quantitative trait Q1 and the corresponding affection status DIS, but the APM method was only suggestive [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CCAR1

  • Purification and molecular cloning of a DNA ADP-ribosylating protein, CARP-1, from the edible clam Meretrix lamarckii [9].
  • The NCI Drug Information System (DIS) is a collection of 24 interactively searchable databases which contain all the data associated with NCI's drug screening program [24].
  • Protein sequence analysis revealed that Arpp is homologous (52.7% identity) to Carp which is shown to be involved in the regulation of the transcription of the cardiac ventricular myosin light chain 2 gene [25].
  • (iii) To establish if MPS can remove mature cysts from contact lenses according to the ISO/DIS 14729 regimen test for microbe removal [26].
  • All the samples were tested using a sensitive procedure based on ISO/DIS 16654:1999 (later ISO 16654:2001), which includes an immunomagnetic separation step [27].


  1. Possible role of dimerization in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genome RNA packaging. Sakuragi, J., Ueda, S., Iwamoto, A., Shioda, T. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Multiple sclerosis-associated agent: transmission to animals and some properties of the agent. Koldovsky, U., Koldovsky, P., Henle, G., Henle, W., Ackermann, R., Haase, G. Infect. Immun. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Distal intramural spread of rectal cancer after preoperative radiotherapy: The results of a multicenter randomized clinical study. Chmielik, E., Bujko, K., Nasierowska-Guttmejer, A., Nowacki, M.P., Kepka, L., Sopylo, R., Wojnar, A., Majewski, P., Sygut, J., Karmolinski, A., Huzarski, T., Wandzel, P. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Use of services by persons with mental and addictive disorders. Findings from the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program. Narrow, W.E., Regier, D.A., Rae, D.S., Manderscheid, R.W., Locke, B.Z. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. The comorbidity of anxiety and depression in general medical patients: a longitudinal study. Zung, W.W., Magruder-Habib, K., Velez, R., Alling, W. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Lifetime comorbidity of panic attacks and major depression in a population-based study. Symptom profiles. Andrade, L., Eaton, W.W., Chilcoat, H. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. The NIMH-DIS in the assessment of DSM-III schizophrenic disorder. Escobar, J.I., Randolph, E.T., Asamen, J., Karno, M. Schizophrenia bulletin. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Social and personal resources and the prevalence of phobic disorder in a community population. Hybels, C.F., Blazer, D.G., Kaplan, B.H. Psychological medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Purification and molecular cloning of a DNA ADP-ribosylating protein, CARP-1, from the edible clam Meretrix lamarckii. Nakano, T., Matsushima-Hibiya, Y., Yamamoto, M., Enomoto, S., Matsumoto, Y., Totsuka, Y., Watanabe, M., Sugimura, T., Wakabayashi, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification and characterization of a cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein-1 as a novel mediator of apoptosis signaling by retinoid CD437. Rishi, A.K., Zhang, L., Boyanapalli, M., Wali, A., Mohammad, R.M., Yu, Y., Fontana, J.A., Hatfield, J.S., Dawson, M.I., Majumdar, A.P., Reichert, U. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Antisocial personality disorder, HIV risk behavior and retention in methadone maintenance therapy. Gill, K., Nolimal, D., Crowley, T.J. Drug and alcohol dependence. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Using p53-immunostained large specimens to determine the distal intramural spread margin of rectal cancer. Pan, Z.Z., Wan, D.S., Zhang, C.Q., Shao, J.Y., Li, L.R., Chen, G., Zhou, Z.W., Wang, F.L. World J. Gastroenterol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Distal intramural spread in colorectal cancer: a reappraisal of the extent of distal clearance in fifty cases. Sidoni, A., Bufalari, A., Alberti, P.F. Tumori. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of multidrug resistance reversal agents. Klopman, G., Shi, L.M., Ramu, A. Mol. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. The leader of the HIV-1 RNA genome forms a compactly folded tertiary structure. Berkhout, B., van Wamel, J.L. RNA (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Pressure stimulates breast cancer cell adhesion independently of cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein (CARP)-1 regulation of focal adhesion kinase. Downey, C., Alwan, K., Thamilselvan, V., Zhang, L., Jiang, Y., Rishi, A.K., Basson, M.D. Am. J. Surg. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Categories of deltaF508 homozygous cystic fibrosis twin and sibling pairs with distinct phenotypic characteristics. Mekus, F., Ballmann, M., Bronsveld, I., Bijman, J., Veeze, H., Tümmler, B. Twin research : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Delayed initiation of SS1 pulses in the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica: evidence for a fourth conducting system. Jackson, A.J., McFarlane, I.D. J. Exp. Biol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of support stimulation on human soleus fiber characteristics during exposure to "dry" immersion. Moukhina, A., Shenkman, B., Blottner, D., Nemirovskaya, T., Lemesheva, Y., Püttmann, B., Kozlovskaya, I. Journal of gravitational physiology : a journal of the International Society for Gravitational Physiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. The latent dimensionality of DIS/DSM-III-R nicotine dependence: exploratory analyses. Johnson, E.O., Breslau, N., Anthony, J.C. Addiction (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Wear characteristics of sliding pairs of zirconia (Y-TZP) for hip endoprostheses. Willmann, G., Früh, H.J., Pfaff, H.G. Biomaterials (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Evaluation of genetic and environmental effects using GEE and APM methods. Bull, S.B., Chapman, N.H., Greenwood, C.M., Darlington, G.A. Genet. Epidemiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of omeprazole on symptoms and ultrastructural esophageal damage in acid bile reflux. Calabrese, C., Fabbri, A., Bortolotti, M., Cenacchi, G., Carlo, S., Zahlane, D., Miglioli, M., Di Febo, G. World J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. The NCI Drug Information System. 6. System maintenance. Zehnacker, M.T., Brennan, R.H., Milne, G.W., Miller, J.A., Hammel, M.J. Journal of chemical information and computer sciences. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of a novel human ankyrin-repeated protein homologous to CARP. Moriyama, M., Tsukamoto, Y., Fujiwara, M., Kondo, G., Nakada, C., Baba, T., Ishiguro, N., Miyazaki, A., Nakamura, K., Hori, N., Sato, K., Shomori, K., Takeuchi, K., Satoh, H., Mori, S., Ito, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. A comparison of cyst age and assay method of the efficacy of contact lens disinfectants against Acanthamoeba. Kilvington, S., Anger, C. The British journal of ophthalmology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in minced beef and dairy products in Italy. Conedera, G., Dalvit, P., Martini, M., Galiero, G., Gramaglia, M., Goffredo, E., Loffredo, G., Morabito, S., Ottaviani, D., Paterlini, F., Pezzotti, G., Pisanu, M., Semprini, P., Caprioli, A. Int. J. Food Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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