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MeSH Review

Phobic Disorders

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Disease relevance of Phobic Disorders


Psychiatry related information on Phobic Disorders


High impact information on Phobic Disorders

  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, with placebo in adults with generalized social phobia [6].
  • Fear reduction in exposure therapy is similar to extinction learning, and early clinical data with specific phobias suggest that the treatment effects of exposure therapy for SAD may be enhanced with d-cycloserine, an agonist at the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor [11].
  • Fluoxetine, comprehensive cognitive behavioral therapy, and placebo in generalized social phobia [12].
  • Common changes in cerebral blood flow in patients with social phobia treated with citalopram or cognitive-behavioral therapy [13].
  • RESULTS: Compared with the offspring for whom neither parent was depressed, the offspring of depressed parents had increased rates of MDD, particularly before puberty, and phobias (both at approximately a 3-fold risk), panic disorder, alcohol dependence (at a 5-fold risk), and greater social impairment [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Phobic Disorders


Biological context of Phobic Disorders


Anatomical context of Phobic Disorders


Gene context of Phobic Disorders


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Phobic Disorders


  1. Characteristics of social phobia among persons with essential tremor. Schneier, F.R., Barnes, L.F., Albert, S.M., Louis, E.D. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Pharmacotherapy of social phobia: an interim report of a placebo-controlled comparison of phenelzine and atenolol. Liebowitz, M.R., Gorman, J.M., Fyer, A.J., Campeas, R., Levin, A.P., Sandberg, D., Hollander, E., Papp, L., Goetz, D. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Using test dose challenges to restore essential therapy in patients with idiopathic anaphylaxis and pharmacophobia: report of a patient with idiopathic anaphylaxis and statin phobia. Mastrovich, J.D., Patterson, R., Davison, R., Harris, K.E. Allergy and asthma proceedings : the official journal of regional and state allergy societies. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. "Levodopa phobia": a new iatrogenic cause of disability in Parkinson disease. Kurlan, R. Neurology (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. End-tidal pCO2 in blood phobics during viewing of emotion- and disease-related films. Ritz, T., Wilhelm, F.H., Gerlach, A.L., Kullowatz, A., Roth, W.T. Psychosomatic medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Paroxetine treatment of generalized social phobia (social anxiety disorder): a randomized controlled trial. Stein, M.B., Liebowitz, M.R., Lydiard, R.B., Pitts, C.D., Bushnell, W., Gergel, I. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Panic disorder and major depression. Increased risk of depression, alcoholism, panic, and phobic disorders in families of depressed probands with panic disorder. Leckman, J.F., Weissman, M.M., Merikangas, K.R., Pauls, D.L., Prusoff, B.A. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. The Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development. Influences of age, sex, and impairment on rates of disorder. Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Meyer, J.M., Silberg, J.L., Maes, H.H., Loeber, R., Rutter, M., Hewitt, J.K., Eaves, L.J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Cognitive behavioral group therapy vs phenelzine therapy for social phobia: 12-week outcome. Heimberg, R.G., Liebowitz, M.R., Hope, D.A., Schneier, F.R., Holt, C.S., Welkowitz, L.A., Juster, H.R., Campeas, R., Bruch, M.A., Cloitre, M., Fallon, B., Klein, D.F. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Treatment of phobias. I. Comparison of imipramine hydrochloride and placebo. Zitrin, C.M., Klein, D.F., Woerner, M.G., Ross, D.C. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Augmentation of exposure therapy with D-cycloserine for social anxiety disorder. Hofmann, S.G., Meuret, A.E., Smits, J.A., Simon, N.M., Pollack, M.H., Eisenmenger, K., Shiekh, M., Otto, M.W. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Fluoxetine, comprehensive cognitive behavioral therapy, and placebo in generalized social phobia. Davidson, J.R., Foa, E.B., Huppert, J.D., Keefe, F.J., Franklin, M.E., Compton, J.S., Zhao, N., Connor, K.M., Lynch, T.R., Gadde, K.M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Common changes in cerebral blood flow in patients with social phobia treated with citalopram or cognitive-behavioral therapy. Furmark, T., Tillfors, M., Marteinsdottir, I., Fischer, H., Pissiota, A., Långström, B., Fredrikson, M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Offspring of depressed parents. 10 Years later. Weissman, M.M., Warner, V., Wickramaratne, P., Moreau, D., Olfson, M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Clinical pharmacology of phenelzine. Robinson, D.S., Nies, A., Ravaris, C.L., Ives, J.O., Bartlett, D. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Phenelzine vs atenolol in social phobia. A placebo-controlled comparison. Liebowitz, M.R., Schneier, F., Campeas, R., Hollander, E., Hatterer, J., Fyer, A., Gorman, J., Papp, L., Davies, S., Gully, R. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Heart rate and plasma norepinephrine responsivity to orthostatic challenge in anxiety disorders. Comparison of patients with panic disorder and social phobia and normal control subjects. Stein, M.B., Tancer, M.E., Uhde, T.W. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Pindolol potentiation of paroxetine for generalized social phobia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Stein, M.B., Sareen, J., Hami, S., Chao, J. The American journal of psychiatry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of beta 1- and beta 2-blockade on blood pressure and sympathetic responses to flight phobia stress. Ekeberg, O., Kjeldsen, S.E., Eide, I.K., Greenwood, D.T., Enger, E. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Randomised controlled general practice trial of sertraline, exposure therapy and combined treatment in generalised social phobia. Blomhoff, S., Haug, T.T., Hellström, K., Holme, I., Humble, M., Madsbu, H.P., Wold, J.E. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. ADHD, major depressive disorder, and simple phobias are prevalent psychiatric conditions in youth with velocardiofacial syndrome. Antshel, K.M., Fremont, W., Roizen, N.J., Shprintzen, R., Higgins, A.M., Dhamoon, A., Kates, W.R. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Serotonin transporter polymorphism related to amygdala excitability and symptom severity in patients with social phobia. Furmark, T., Tillfors, M., Garpenstrand, H., Marteinsdottir, I., Långström, B., Oreland, L., Fredrikson, M. Neurosci. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Neurobiological mechanisms by which nicotine mediates different types of anxiety. File, S.E., Cheeta, S., Kenny, P.J. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Magnetic resonance imaging in social phobia. Potts, N.L., Davidson, J.R., Krishnan, K.R., Doraiswamy, P.M. Psychiatry research. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Pregabalin (Pfizer). Selak, I. Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England : 2000) (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Serum interleukin-2 and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in generalized social phobia. Rapaport, M.H., Stein, M.B. Anxiety (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Mutation scanning of the androgen receptor gene in patients with psychiatric disorders reveals highly conserved variants in alcoholic and phobia patients. Yan, J., Feng, J., Goldman, D., Cook, E.H., Craddock, N., Jones, I.R., Heston, L.L., Sommer, S.S. Psychiatr. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. A 3-year panel study of mental disorders among adolescents in Taiwan. Gau, S.S., Chong, M.Y., Chen, T.H., Cheng, A.T. The American journal of psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Genome-wide linkage scan for loci predisposing to social phobia: evidence for a chromosome 16 risk locus. Gelernter, J., Page, G.P., Stein, M.B., Woods, S.W. The American journal of psychiatry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. A preliminary study of dopamine-mediated prolactin inhibition in generalised social phobia. Condren, R.M., Sharifi, N., Thakore, J.H. Psychiatry research. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Genetic linkage to the serotonin transporter protein and 5HT2A receptor genes excluded in generalized social phobia. Stein, M.B., Chartier, M.J., Kozak, M.V., King, N., Kennedy, J.L. Psychiatry research. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Glucocorticoids reduce phobic fear in humans. Soravia, L.M., Heinrichs, M., Aerni, A., Maroni, C., Schelling, G., Ehlert, U., Roozendaal, B., de Quervain, D.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Sertraline for social phobia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Katzelnick, D.J., Kobak, K.A., Greist, J.H., Jefferson, J.W., Mantle, J.M., Serlin, R.C. The American journal of psychiatry. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Cerebral blood flow changes after treatment of social phobia with the neurokinin-1 antagonist GR205171, citalopram, or placebo. Furmark, T., Appel, L., Michelgård, A., Wahlstedt, K., Ahs, F., Zancan, S., Jacobsson, E., Flyckt, K., Grohp, M., Bergström, M., Pich, E.M., Nilsson, L.G., Bani, M., Långström, B., Fredrikson, M. Biol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Pharmacotherapy of social phobia. A controlled study with moclobemide and phenelzine. Versiani, M., Nardi, A.E., Mundim, F.D., Alves, A.B., Liebowitz, M.R., Amrein, R. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Brofaromine for social phobia: a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Lott, M., Greist, J.H., Jefferson, J.W., Kobak, K.A., Katzelnick, D.J., Katz, R.J., Schaettle, S.C. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1997) [Pubmed]
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