The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Nelfcd  -  negative elongation factor complex member...

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 2410003I03Rik, C77797, NELF-D, Negative elongation factor D, Nelfd, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Th1l

  • This is in keeping with other evidence showing that susceptible humans generate some level of Th1 immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection [1].
  • Tuberculosis in mice is also exclusively a lung disease that is progressive and lethal, in spite of the generation of Th1-mediated immunity [1].
  • Th1-specific cell surface protein Tim-3 regulates macrophage activation and severity of an autoimmune disease [2].
  • Inhibition of Th1 responses prevents inflammatory bowel disease in scid mice reconstituted with CD45RBhi CD4+ T cells [3].
  • The mice show a polarized immune response toward the Th1 type and develop chronic enterocolitis with age [4].

Psychiatry related information on Th1l

  • In the present study, we established T cell line of Th1 type which recognized the Id of anti-alpha(1 --> 3) dextran antibody, and investigated its specificity and functions [5].

High impact information on Th1l

  • Activation of naive CD4(+) T-helper cells results in the development of at least two distinct effector populations, Th1 and Th2 cells [2].
  • In vivo administration of antibody to Tim-3 enhances the clinical and pathological severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a Th1-dependent autoimmune disease, and increases the number and activation level of macrophages [2].
  • Th1 cells produce cytokines (interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2, tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and lymphotoxin) that are commonly associated with cell-mediated immune responses against intracellular pathogens, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, and induction of organ-specific autoimmune diseases [2].
  • An adjuvant role for certain short bacterial immunostimulatory DNA sequences (ISSs) has recently been proposed on the basis of their ability to stimulate T helper-1 (Th1) responses in gene-vaccinated animals [6].
  • Resistance to Th1-mediated cytotoxicity was similarly observed in CD40L-stimulated 3-83 (anti-H-2Kk,b) transgenic B cells co-cultured with H-2Kk or H-2Kb (but not H-2Kd) splenocytes [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Th1l


Biological context of Th1l

  • The results suggest that the CD40-CD40 ligand interaction plays an important role in two critical steps of cell-mediated immunity to L. major infection: the generation of a Th1 response and activation of macrophages to a leishmanicidal state [13].
  • Thus, TGF-beta signaling in peripheral T cells is crucial in restraining TCR activation-dependent Th1, cytotoxic, and NK cell-like differentiation program which, when left unchecked, leads to rapidly progressing fatal autoimmunity [14].
  • Our data indicate that cPLA2alpha plays an important role in EAE development and facilitates differentiation of T cells toward the Th1 phenotype [15].
  • The findings demonstrate that Th1 cells can mediate a protective immune response against poliovirus infection in vivo through helper activity for humoral immunity and that CD4+ T cells, specific for the internal poliovirus capsid protein, VP4, can provide effective help for a protective antibody response directed against surface capsid proteins [16].
  • B cells are susceptible to Fas ligand (FasL)+ CD4(+) Th1 cell-mediated apoptosis [17].

Anatomical context of Th1l

  • Potential targets include activated B cells, but it is not known whether the mode of B-cell stimulation influences susceptibility to Th1-mediated cytotoxicity [7].
  • The impaired Th1-like response appears to be related to a defect in the ability of CD40LKO T cells to induce the production of IL-12 from macrophages [18].
  • Responses mediated by CD4+ cells per se were insufficient to mediate destruction of hepatocytes in vivo, despite the activation of virus-specific T helper cells of Th1 subsets [19].
  • Defective NK cell activity and Th1 response in IL-18-deficient mice [8].
  • Distinct patterns of membrane microdomain partitioning in Th1 and th2 cells [20].

Associations of Th1l with chemical compounds

  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) present in the protein was necessary for priming for Th1 recall responses in the presence of anti-IL-10R mAb, as removal of LPS abrogated this effect [21].
  • P-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 are major determinants for Th1 cell recruitment to nonlymphoid effector sites in the intestinal lamina propria [22].
  • IL-10-transduced two Th1 clones plus CY induced periinsulitis with the grade of 1.43 and diabetes in 8.0% [23].
  • Nitric oxide (NO) modulates Th1 response in vitro [24].
  • Modulation of adenosine receptors may thus represent a suitable target primarily for inflammatory conditions mediated by Th1 and Tc1 cells [25].

Other interactions of Th1l


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Th1l

  • Studies of mice examined 3 d after adoptive transfer of differentiated T cell subsets revealed that Th1 but not Th2 cells were recruited to small intestine PP and LP [22].
  • Our data, showing that LPS receptor signaling and neutralization of endogenous immunosuppressive cytokines is essential for Th1 priming, has important implications for the design of relevant vaccines for effective in vivo immunotherapy [21].
  • Ligation of CD28 on CD4 Th1 clones and freshly isolated mixtures of naive and memory CD4 T cells triggered their T cell receptors (TCR) is sufficient to induce the costimulatory signals necessary for interleukin 2 (IL-2) production by these cells [28].
  • These results indicate that Cot/Tpl2 is an important negative regulator of Th1-type adaptive immunity, that it achieves this regulation by inhibiting IL-12 production from accessory cells, and that it might be a potential target molecule in CpG-DNA-guided vaccination [29].
  • Flow cytometry analysis showed that each peptide selectively activated CD4(+) T cells with a proinflammatory Th1-like phenotype [30].


  1. Immunity to tuberculosis. North, R.J., Jung, Y.J. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Th1-specific cell surface protein Tim-3 regulates macrophage activation and severity of an autoimmune disease. Monney, L., Sabatos, C.A., Gaglia, J.L., Ryu, A., Waldner, H., Chernova, T., Manning, S., Greenfield, E.A., Coyle, A.J., Sobel, R.A., Freeman, G.J., Kuchroo, V.K. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Inhibition of Th1 responses prevents inflammatory bowel disease in scid mice reconstituted with CD45RBhi CD4+ T cells. Powrie, F., Leach, M.W., Mauze, S., Menon, S., Caddle, L.B., Coffman, R.L. Immunity (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Enhanced Th1 activity and development of chronic enterocolitis in mice devoid of Stat3 in macrophages and neutrophils. Takeda, K., Clausen, B.E., Kaisho, T., Tsujimura, T., Terada, N., Förster, I., Akira, S. Immunity (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Establishment and characterization of an anti-idiotypic CD4+ CD8- T cell line to murine anti-alpha(1 --> 3) dextran antibody. Masaki, H., Irimajiri, K., Horiuchi, A., Yamaguchi, J., Toyosaki, T., Suzuki, R., Kurane, I. Cell. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Immunostimulatory DNA sequences function as T helper-1-promoting adjuvants. Roman, M., Martin-Orozco, E., Goodman, J.S., Nguyen, M.D., Sato, Y., Ronaghy, A., Kornbluth, R.S., Richman, D.D., Carson, D.A., Raz, E. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Protection against Fas-dependent Th1-mediated apoptosis by antigen receptor engagement in B cells. Rothstein, T.L., Wang, J.K., Panka, D.J., Foote, L.C., Wang, Z., Stanger, B., Cui, H., Ju, S.T., Marshak-Rothstein, A. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Defective NK cell activity and Th1 response in IL-18-deficient mice. Takeda, K., Tsutsui, H., Yoshimoto, T., Adachi, O., Yoshida, N., Kishimoto, T., Okamura, H., Nakanishi, K., Akira, S. Immunity (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Susceptibility to anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and Goodpasture syndrome is linked to MHC class II genes and the emergence of T cell-mediated immunity in mice. Kalluri, R., Danoff, T.M., Okada, H., Neilson, E.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. CXCL10 DNA vaccination prevents spontaneous diabetes through enhanced beta cell proliferation in NOD mice. Shigihara, T., Shimada, A., Oikawa, Y., Yoneyama, H., Kanazawa, Y., Okubo, Y., Matsushima, K., Yamato, E., Miyazaki, J., Kasuga, A., Saruta, T., Narumi, S. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. FTY720 Ameliorates Th1-Mediated Colitis in Mice by Directly Affecting the Functional Activity of CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells. Daniel, C., Sartory, N., Zahn, N., Geisslinger, G., Radeke, H.H., Stein, J.M. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Estrogen receptor alpha mediates estrogen's immune protection in autoimmune disease. Liu, H.B., Loo, K.K., Palaszynski, K., Ashouri, J., Lubahn, D.B., Voskuhl, R.R. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Protective role of CD40 in Leishmania major infection at two distinct phases of cell-mediated immunity. Kamanaka, M., Yu, P., Yasui, T., Yoshida, K., Kawabe, T., Horii, T., Kishimoto, T., Kikutani, H. Immunity (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Cellular Mechanisms of Fatal Early-Onset Autoimmunity in Mice with the T Cell-Specific Targeting of Transforming Growth Factor-beta Receptor. Marie, J.C., Liggitt, D., Rudensky, A.Y. Immunity (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha-deficient mice are resistant to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Marusic, S., Leach, M.W., Pelker, J.W., Azoitei, M.L., Uozumi, N., Cui, J., Shen, M.W., DeClercq, C.M., Miyashiro, J.S., Carito, B.A., Thakker, P., Simmons, D.L., Leonard, J.P., Shimizu, T., Clark, J.D. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Poliovirus-specific CD4+ Th1 clones with both cytotoxic and helper activity mediate protective humoral immunity against a lethal poliovirus infection in transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor. Mahon, B.P., Katrak, K., Nomoto, A., Macadam, A.J., Minor, P.D., Mills, K.H. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Essential lymphocyte function associated 1 (LFA-1): intercellular adhesion molecule interactions for T cell-mediated B cell apoptosis by Fas/APO-1/CD95. Wang, J., Lenardo, M.J. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. CD40 ligand is required for protective cell-mediated immunity to Leishmania major. Campbell, K.A., Ovendale, P.J., Kennedy, M.K., Fanslow, W.C., Reed, S.G., Maliszewski, C.R. Immunity (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. MHC class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes to viral antigens destroy hepatocytes in mice infected with E1-deleted recombinant adenoviruses. Yang, Y., Ertl, H.C., Wilson, J.M. Immunity (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Distinct patterns of membrane microdomain partitioning in Th1 and th2 cells. Balamuth, F., Leitenberg, D., Unternaehrer, J., Mellman, I., Bottomly, K. Immunity (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Anti-interleukin 10 receptor monoclonal antibody is an adjuvant for T helper cell type 1 responses to soluble antigen only in the presence of lipopolysaccharide. Castro, A.G., Neighbors, M., Hurst, S.D., Zonin, F., Silva, R.A., Murphy, E., Liu, Y.J., O'Garra, A. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. P-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 are major determinants for Th1 cell recruitment to nonlymphoid effector sites in the intestinal lamina propria. Haddad, W., Cooper, C.J., Zhang, Z., Brown, J.B., Zhu, Y., Issekutz, A., Fuss, I., Lee, H.O., Kansas, G.S., Barrett, T.A. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Prevention of adoptively transferred diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice with IL-10-transduced islet-specific Th1 lymphocytes. A gene therapy model for autoimmune diabetes. Moritani, M., Yoshimoto, K., Ii, S., Kondo, M., Iwahana, H., Yamaoka, T., Sano, T., Nakano, N., Kikutani, H., Itakura, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. NO-aspirin protects from T cell-mediated liver injury by inhibiting caspase-dependent processing of Th1-like cytokines. Fiorucci, S., Santucci, L., Antonelli, E., Distrutti, E., Del Sero, G., Morelli, O., Romani, L., Federici, B., Del Soldato, P., Morelli, A. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Activation of Th1 and Tc1 cell adenosine A2A receptors directly inhibits IL-2 secretion in vitro and IL-2-driven expansion in vivo. Erdmann, A.A., Gao, Z.G., Jung, U., Foley, J., Borenstein, T., Jacobson, K.A., Fowler, D.H. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Examination of lymphokines induced in mice following immunization with recombinant simian virus 40 large tumor antigen. Bright, R.K., Shearer, M.H., Kennedy, R.C. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Enterocolitis and colon cancer in interleukin-10-deficient mice are associated with aberrant cytokine production and CD4(+) TH1-like responses. Berg, D.J., Davidson, N., Kühn, R., Müller, W., Menon, S., Holland, G., Thompson-Snipes, L., Leach, M.W., Rennick, D. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. A quantitative analysis of antigen-presenting cell function: activated B cells stimulate naive CD4 T cells but are inferior to dendritic cells in providing costimulation. Cassell, D.J., Schwartz, R.H. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. A serine/threonine kinase, Cot/Tpl2, modulates bacterial DNA-induced IL-12 production and Th cell differentiation. Sugimoto, K., Ohata, M., Miyoshi, J., Ishizaki, H., Tsuboi, N., Masuda, A., Yoshikai, Y., Takamoto, M., Sugane, K., Matsuo, S., Shimada, Y., Matsuguchi, T. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Murine autoimmune hearing loss mediated by CD4+ T cells specific for inner ear peptides. Solares, C.A., Edling, A.E., Johnson, J.M., Baek, M.J., Hirose, K., Hughes, G.B., Tuohy, V.K. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities