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Gene Review

TARS  -  threonyl-tRNA synthetase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ThrRS, Threonine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic, Threonyl-tRNA synthetase
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Disease relevance of TARS

  • TARS. Their role in the treatment of psoriasis [1].
  • Autoantibodies to histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS) or to alanyl-, asparaginyl-, glycyl-, isoleucyl-, or threonyl-tRNA synthetase occur in approximately 25% of patients with polymyositis or dermatomyositis [2].
  • Here, we show that the N-terminal domains of three E. coli multidomain proteins such as lysyl-tRNA synthetase, threonyl-tRNA synthetase, and aconitase are potent solubility enhancers for various C-terminal heterologous proteins [3].
  • We describe a patient with dermatomyositis and inflammatory polyarthritis with erosive wrist arthropathy who was found to have the anti-PL-7 autoantibody directed against threonyl-tRNA synthetase [4].
  • The photoxicity of coal tars was determined by comparing the ultraviolet light (UVL) energy required to produce erythema at tar treated sites (minimal phototoxic dose [MPD]) with the energy required to produce the same degree of erythema at untreated control sites (minimal erythema dose [MED]) [5].

High impact information on TARS


Chemical compound and disease context of TARS


Biological context of TARS


Anatomical context of TARS


Associations of TARS with chemical compounds

  • Effects of temperature (400-1000 degrees C) and rate of heating to 550 degrees C (100, 1000, 5000 degrees C/sec) on reduction of pyrene contamination in a Superfund-related soil and on yields of volatile products (tars, CO, CO2, methane, acetylene, ethylene) have been measured [18].
  • RESULTS: Tars and salicylic acid blocked UVB [19].
  • 3. Overall, the potential severity of side effects from tars is less than that from anthralin and much less than that from topical corticosteroids (atrophy, rebound) [1].
  • Tars, nickel sulfate, perfume and balsam of Peru scored high [20].
  • Reactions to propylene glycol and perfume mix were as frequent in both groups, whereas formaldehyde, cobalt and chromate caused reactions more often in nickel-positive patients (p less than 0.05) and wood tars in negatives (p less than 0.05) [21].

Other interactions of TARS


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TARS

  • Patients with recalcitrant disease, however, are slow to respond to UVB phototherapy with and without the use of coal tars or emollients [23].
  • Study of the composition of tars produced from blends of coal and polyethylene wastes using high-performance liquid chromatography [24].
  • Four commercially available corticosteroid preparations were assayed for their capacity to suppress patch test reactions with contact allergens (nickel sulfate, nitrofuralum, potassium dichromate, epoxy resin, wood tars and Maneb) in sensitized individuals (n=14) [25].
  • In two different animal models, tumors can be produced following exposure to DNA viruses and tars [26].
  • Particulate toxins (tars) are reduced by the use of vaporizer apparati [27].


  1. TARS. Their role in the treatment of psoriasis. Dodd, W.A. Dermatologic clinics. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Histidyl-tRNA synthetase and asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase, autoantigens in myositis, activate chemokine receptors on T lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells. Howard, O.M., Dong, H.F., Yang, D., Raben, N., Nagaraju, K., Rosen, A., Casciola-Rosen, L., Härtlein, M., Kron, M., Yang, D., Yiadom, K., Dwivedi, S., Plotz, P.H., Oppenheim, J.J. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. N-terminal domains of native multidomain proteins have the potential to assist de novo folding of their downstream domains in vivo by acting as solubility enhancers. Kim, C.W., Han, K.S., Ryu, K.S., Kim, B.H., Kim, K.H., Choi, S.I., Seong, B.L. Protein Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Dermatomyositis with erosive arthropathy: association with the anti-PL-7 antibody. Wasko, M.C., Carlson, G.W., Tomaino, M.M., Oddis, C.V. J. Rheumatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Tar photoxicity and phototherapy for psoriasis. Tanenbaum, L., Parrish, J.A., Pathak, M.A., Anderson, R.R., Fitzpatrick, T.B. Archives of dermatology. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Transfer RNA-mediated editing in threonyl-tRNA synthetase. The class II solution to the double discrimination problem. Dock-Bregeon, A., Sankaranarayanan, R., Romby, P., Caillet, J., Springer, M., Rees, B., Francklyn, C.S., Ehresmann, C., Moras, D. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Post-transfer editing mechanism of a D-aminoacyl-tRNA deacylase-like domain in threonyl-tRNA synthetase from archaea. Hussain, T., Kruparani, S.P., Pal, B., Dock-Bregeon, A.C., Dwivedi, S., Shekar, M.R., Sureshbabu, K., Sankaranarayanan, R. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Degradation of xenobiotic compounds in situ: capabilities and limits. Bouwer, E., Durant, N., Wilson, L., Zhang, W., Cunningham, A. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Isolation of a cDNA clone for human threonyl-tRNA synthetase: amplification of the structural gene in borrelidin-resistant cell lines. Kontis, K.J., Arfin, S.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. History of the treatment of psoriasis. Farber, E.M. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Wood tars allergy, cross-sensitization and coal tar. Roesyanto, I.D., van den Akker, T.W., van Joost, T.W. Contact Derm. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. A clinician's paradigm in the treatment of psoriasis. Lebwohl, M. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Threonyl-tRNA synthetase gene maps close to leucyl-tRNA synthetase gene on human chromosome 5. Gerken, S.C., Wasmuth, J.J., Arfin, S.M. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Coal tar residues produce both DNA adducts and oxidative DNA damage in human mammary epithelial cells. Leadon, S.A., Sumerel, J., Minton, T.A., Tischler, A. Carcinogenesis (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Size-exclusion chromatography of large molecules from coal liquids, petroleum residues, soots, biomass tars and humic substances. Herod, A.A., Zhuo, Y., Kandiyoti, R. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes by benzanthracene or cigarette tars adsorbed to asbestos fibers. McLemore, T.L., Jenkins, W.T., Arnott, M.S., Wray, N.P. Cancer Lett. (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. Psoriasis. Leukocytes and cytokines. Cooper, K.D. Dermatologic clinics. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Thermal removal of pyrene contamination from soil: basic studies and environmental health implications. Saito, H.H., Bucalá, V., Howard, J.B., Peters, W.A. Environ. Health Perspect. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of topical preparations on the erythemogenicity of UVB: implications for psoriasis phototherapy. Lebwohl, M., Martinez, J., Weber, P., DeLuca, R. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Delayed-type hypersensitivity to contact allergens in psoriasis. A clinical evaluation. Heule, F., Tahapary, G.J., Bello, C.R., van Joost, T. Contact Derm. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Do positive nickel reactions increase nonspecific patch test reactivity? Lammintausta, K., Kalimo, K. Contact Derm. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection and quantitation of anti-Jo-1 antibody in human serum. Biswas, T., Miller, F.W., Takagaki, Y., Plotz, P.H. J. Immunol. Methods (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Acitretin plus UVB therapy for psoriasis. Comparisons with placebo plus UVB and acitretin alone. Lowe, N.J., Prystowsky, J.H., Bourget, T., Edelstein, J., Nychay, S., Armstrong, R. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Study of the composition of tars produced from blends of coal and polyethylene wastes using high-performance liquid chromatography. Díez, M.A., Alvarez, R., Gayo, F., Barriocanal, C., Moinelo, S.R. Journal of chromatography. A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Influence of topically applied corticosteroids on patch test reactions. Sukanto, H., Nater, J.P., Bleumink, E. Contact Derm. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. The cause of invasive cervical cancer could be multifactorial. Haverkos, H., Rohrer, M., Pickworth, W. Biomed. Pharmacother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Medical marijuana and its use by the immunocompromised. McPartland, J.M., Pruitt, P.L. Alternative therapies in health and medicine. (1997) [Pubmed]
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