The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

TOC  -  tylosis with oesophageal cancer

Homo sapiens

This record was replaced with 79651.
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of TOC


Psychiatry related information on TOC

  • The TOC reduction of the former also reached as high as about 81% within a reaction time of 30.0 min [4].

High impact information on TOC

  • RESULTS: LOH on 17q was observed in 37 of 52 (71%) informative cases at one or more loci, 80% (33/37) of which included the TOC locus [2].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The constructed deletion map revealed that the TOC locus is commonly deleted in sporadic ESCs, suggesting that a tumor-suppressor gene responsible for ESC is contained within this locus [2].
  • Our previous linkage and haplotype analyses have mapped the tylosis with oesophageal cancer (TOC) locus to a 42.5 kb region on chromosome 17q25 that has also been implicated in the aetiology of sporadically occurring SCOC from a number of different geographical populations [5].
  • Down-regulation of the cytoglobin gene, located on 17q25, in tylosis with oesophageal cancer (TOC): evidence for trans-allele repression [5].
  • Close mapping of the focal non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) locus associated with oesophageal cancer (TOC) [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of TOC

  • AIMS: An evaluation was made of the prevalence of Legionella species in hot water distribution systems in the city of Bologna (Italy) and their possible association with bacterial contamination (total counts and Pseudomonadaceae) and the chemical characteristics of the water (pH, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Total Organic Carbon, TOC) [7].
  • The pattern of toxicity reduction parallels the decrease in parathion and TOC concentrations [8].
  • The principal metabolite of 2-NSA biodegradation (in both MSM and tannery wastewater) produced by Comamonas sp. 4BC had a MW of 174 and accounted for the residual DOC (7.0-19.0% of the initial TOC and 66% of the remaining TOC) [9].
  • The resulting sorption coefficients for humic substances and TA suggested approximately 15 to 50% of the estrogens and estrogenic compounds were bound in typical natural water of 5 mg TOC/L and significant effects on the removal of them by water treatment processes, toxicity, or bioavailability were suggested [10].
  • Microtox toxicity results confirmed the BOD1/TOC trends for diphenylamine [11].

Biological context of TOC

  • Further haplotype analysis described here, based on revised maps of marker order, has reduced the TOC minimal region to a genetic interval of 2 cM limited by the microsatellite markers D17S785 and D17S751 [1].
  • The disease locus [previously termed the "tylosis oesophageal cancer gene' (TOC) locus] has been mapped to 17q23-qter by linkage analysis [6].
  • Further fine mapping of the TOC disease locus by haplotype analysis of the seven polymorphic markers and 21 of the 59 SNPs allowed the reduction of the minimal region to 42.5 kb [12].
  • To overcome the unfavorable pharmacokinetics of radiohalogenated octreotide analogues, we evaluated three carbohydrated conjugates of Tyr(3)-octreotide (TOC) [13].
  • The degradation kinetics, TOC changes, degradation products, ESR detection of active oxygen species, and the effect of radical scavengers are also investigated to clarify the degradation process and the reaction pathway [14].

Anatomical context of TOC

  • Envoplakin (EVPL) is a protein component of desmosomes and the cornified envelope that is expressed in epidermal and esophageal keratinocytes and has been localized to the TOC region [15].
  • Most nucleus-encoded chloroplast proteins are translated in precursor form on cytosolic ribosomes, targeted to the chloroplast surface, and then imported across the double-membrane envelope by translocons in the outer and inner envelope membranes of the chloroplast, termed TOC and TIC, respectively [16].
  • Total dissolved organic carbon (TOC), number of colony forming units (CFU), and total direct count (TDC) were compared to the biodegradation of aniline and the number of potential degraders in water samples from head waters to down stream of the Ina River and several other sites of rivers traversing Osaka city [17].
  • METHODS: FN protein synthesis by human tubular epithelial cells in culture (TEC) was measured by biosynthetic labeling and ELISA [18].
  • umor-derived endothelial cells (TEC) display increased survival and angiogenic properties in respect to normal endothelial cells [19].

Associations of TOC with chemical compounds

  • When added to HF-TOC with ongoing infection, the protease inhibitor saquinavir efficiently suppresses NL4-R3A replication [20].
  • Ninety-five percent of mineralization (<2.0 mg/L) was reached after 250 min of photocatalytic treatment with Fenton and 450 min with TiO2, meaning that TOC disappears 2.4 times faster with photo-Fenton photocatalytic treatment than with TiO2 [21].
  • Using a 125 W mercury bulb and 20 mA cm-2, the phenol concentration decayed 85% in 90 min and 70% reduction of TOC was obtained [22].
  • The Electro-Fenton process stage, based on the flow of oxygen through a gas diffusion cathode to produce H2O2, allows mineralization of about a half of the TOC content in ca. 1 h, because anodic oxidation is coupled with Fenton reaction in the presence of Fe2+ catalyst [23].
  • Photomineralization of the substrates in terms of loss of nitrogen to NH4+/NO3- was rather low (ca. 25-40%) for each of the triazoles, whereas evolution of CO2 (loss of TOC) was more significant (60-70%), indicating considerable retention of nitrogen in the intermediate products [24].

Other interactions of TOC

  • Geographic position and regional-scale factors combined explained 15.3% (streams) and 10.6% (lakes) of the variation in ANC, TP, and TOC [25].
  • Confirmation of the exclusion of EVPL as the TOC gene by location was obtained by integration of the genetic and physical mapping data using radiation hybrid, YAC, BAC, and PAC clones [15].
  • Since the BRCA1 gene lies at 17q21.1 and the TOC locus, associated with esophageal cancer, lies at 17q25.1, either gene could be the target of those losses [26].
  • Herbicide decay, corresponding evolutions of TOC, TOX and chloride ion release were regularly monitored throughout the reactions [27].
  • Factor 1 (seawater salinization) includes concentrations of EC, TDS, Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), Na(+), K(+) and Mg(2+), and Factor 2 (arsenic pollutant) includes concentrations of Alk, TOC and arsenic [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TOC

  • In addition, our complete sequence analysis of the non-repetitive parts of the TOC minimal region identified 53 novel and six known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in one or both of these families [12].
  • Somatostatin receptor specificity of tumor uptake was confirmed by pretreatment, competition, and displacement experiments in vivo using 0.8 mg TOC/kg and gamma-camera imaging [13].
  • The process has been monitored by following either the disappearance of the dye (via HPLC) and the formation of its end-products (via IC, GC, and TOC analysis) [29].
  • A total of 90 patients with psoriasis were treated either by photochemotherapy (PUVA) or by topical steroids under occlusion (TOC) [30].
  • Although the TOC removal increases with increasing amount of zeolite, because of the necessity of additional filtration to lower turbidity to required levels, 5.0 g/L of zeolite was found to be optimum [31].


  1. Characterization of a 500 kb region on 17q25 and the exclusion of candidate genes as the familial Tylosis Oesophageal Cancer (TOC) locus. Risk, J.M., Evans, K.E., Jones, J., Langan, J.E., Rowbottom, L., McRonald, F.E., Mills, H.S., Ellis, A., Shaw, J.M., Leigh, I.M., Kelsell, D.P., Field, J.K. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Tylosis esophageal cancer locus on chromosome 17q25.1 is commonly deleted in sporadic human esophageal cancer. Iwaya, T., Maesawa, C., Ogasawara, S., Tamura, G. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Induction of MHC class I expression on immature thymocytes in HIV-1-infected SCID-hu Thy/Liv mice: evidence of indirect mechanisms. Kovalev, G., Duus, K., Wang, L., Lee, R., Bonyhadi, M., Ho, D., McCune, J.M., Kaneshima, H., Su, L. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Feasibility study of photoelectrochemical degradation of methylene blue with three-dimensional electrode-photocatalytic reactor. An, T.C., Zhu, X.H., Xiong, Y. Chemosphere (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Down-regulation of the cytoglobin gene, located on 17q25, in tylosis with oesophageal cancer (TOC): evidence for trans-allele repression. McRonald, F.E., Liloglou, T., Xinarianos, G., Hill, L., Rowbottom, L., Langan, J.E., Ellis, A., Shaw, J.M., Field, J.K., Risk, J.M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Close mapping of the focal non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) locus associated with oesophageal cancer (TOC). Kelsell, D.P., Risk, J.M., Leigh, I.M., Stevens, H.P., Ellis, A., Hennies, H.C., Reis, A., Weissenbach, J., Bishop, D.T., Spurr, N.K., Field, J.K. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Legionella waterline colonization: detection of Legionella species in domestic, hotel and hospital hot water systems. Leoni, E., De Luca, G., Legnani, P.P., Sacchetti, R., Stampi, S., Zanetti, F. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Degradation mechanism and the toxicity assessment in TiO2 photocatalysis and photolysis of parathion. Kim, T.S., Kim, J.K., Choi, K., Stenstrom, M.K., Zoh, K.D. Chemosphere (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Biodegradation of naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid present in tannery wastewater by bacterial isolates Arthrobacter sp. 2AC and Comamonas sp. 4BC. Song, Z., Edwards, S.R., Burns, R.G. Biodegradation (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. The fate of estrogenic compounds in the aquatic environment: sorption onto organic colloids. Yamamoto, H., Liljestrand, H.M. Water Sci. Technol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Enhancement of the biodegradability of model wastewater containing recalcitrant or inhibitory chemical compounds by photocatalytic pre-oxidation. Bolduc, L., Anderson, W.A. Biodegradation (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Novel microsatellite markers and single nucleotide polymorphisms refine the tylosis with oesophageal cancer (TOC) minimal region on 17q25 to 42.5 kb: sequencing does not identify the causative gene. Langan, J.E., Cole, C.G., Huckle, E.J., Byrne, S., McRonald, F.E., Rowbottom, L., Ellis, A., Shaw, J.M., Leigh, I.M., Kelsell, D.P., Dunham, I., Field, J.K., Risk, J.M. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Improvement of pharmacokinetics of radioiodinated Tyr(3)-octreotide by conjugation with carbohydrates. Schottelius, M., Wester, H.J., Reubi, J.C., Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R., Schwaiger, M. Bioconjug. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Photodegradation of dye pollutants catalyzed by porous K3PW12O40 under visible irradiation. Chen, C., Wang, Q., Lei, P., Song, W., Ma, W., Zhao, J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Envoplakin, a possible candidate gene for focal NEPPK/esophageal cancer (TOC): the integration of genetic and physical maps of the TOC region on 17q25. Risk, J.M., Ruhrberg, C., Hennies, H., Mills, H.S., Di Colandrea, T., Evans, K.E., Ellis, A., Watt, F.M., Bishop, D.T., Spurr, N.K., Stevens, H.P., Leigh, I.M., Reis, A., Kelsell, D.P., Field, J.K. Genomics (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Recognition and envelope translocation of chloroplast preproteins. Bédard, J., Jarvis, P. J. Exp. Bot. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Biodegradation of aniline and abundance of potential degraders in river waters. Goonewardena, N., Nasu, M., Okuda, A., Tani, K., Takubo, Y., Kondo, M. Biomed. Environ. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Fibronectin synthesis by human tubular epithelial cells in culture: effects of PDGF and TGF-beta on synthesis and splicing. Bürger, A., Wagner, C., Viedt, C., Reis, B., Hug, F., Hänsch, G.M. Kidney Int. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. The proangiogenic phenotype of human tumor-derived endothelial cells depends on thrombospondin-1 downregulation via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Bussolati, B., Assenzio, B., Deregibus, M.C., Camussi, G. J. Mol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Fusion-induced apoptosis contributes to thymocyte depletion by a pathogenic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope in the human thymus. Meissner, E.G., Zhang, L., Jiang, S., Su, L. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Degradation of imidacloprid in water by photo-Fenton and TiO2 photocatalysis at a solar pilot plant: a comparative study. Malato, S., Caceres, J., Agüera, A., Mezcua, M., Hernando, D., Vial, J., Fernández-Alba, A.R. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Photoassisted electrochemical degradation of organic pollutants on a DSA type oxide electrode: process test for a phenol synthetic solution and its application for the E1 bleach Kraft mill effluent. Pelegrini, R.T., Freire, R.S., Duran, N., Bertazzoli, R. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Mineralization of aromatics in water by sunlight-assisted electro-fenton technology in a pilot reactor. Casado, J., Fornaguera, J., Galán, M.I. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Formation of refractory ring-expanded triazine intermediates during the photocatalyzed mineralization of the endocrine disruptor amitrole and related triazole derivatives at UV-irradiated TiO2/H2O interfaces. Watanabe, N., Horikoshi, S., Kawasaki, A., Hidaka, H., Serpone, N. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Multiscale drivers of water chemistry of boreal lakes and streams. Stendera, S., Johnson, R.K. Environmental management. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Frequent allelic loss at the TOC locus on 17q25.1 in primary breast cancers. Fukino, K., Iido, A., Teramoto, A., Sakamoto, G., Kasumi, F., Nakamura, Y., Emi, M. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Chlorinated herbicide (triallate) dehalogenation by iron powder. Volpe, A., Lopez, A., Mascolo, G., Detomaso, A. Chemosphere (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Application of factor analysis in the assessment of groundwater quality in a blackfoot disease area in Taiwan. Liu, C.W., Lin, K.H., Kuo, Y.M. Sci. Total Environ. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Photocatalytic degradation of acid blue 80 in aqueous solutions containing TiO2 suspensions. Prevot, A.B., Baiocchi, C., Brussino, M.C., Pramauro, E., Savarino, P., Augugliaro, V., Marcì, G., Palmisano, L. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Evaluation of PUVA, topical corticosteroids and the combination of both in the treatment of psoriasis. Schmoll, M., Henseler, T., Christophers, E. Br. J. Dermatol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  31. The role of zeolites in wastewater treatment of printing inks. Metes, A., Kovacević, D., Vujević, D., Papić, S. Water Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities