The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

PHR1  -  deoxyribodipyrimidine photo-lyase PHR1

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: DNA photolyase, Deoxyribodipyrimidine photo-lyase, mitochondrial, Photoreactivating enzyme, YOR386W
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of PHR1

  • However, despite the functional and structural similarities between yeast photolyase and the E. coli enzyme and complementation of the photoreactivation deficiency of E. coli phr mutants by PHR1, yeast photolyase failed to enhance excision repair in the bacterium [1].
  • Effects of microinjected photoreactivating enzyme on thymine dimer removal and DNA repair synthesis in normal human and xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts [2].
  • Cloning, sequencing, expression and characterization of DNA photolyase from Salmonella typhimurium [3].
  • Yeast photoreactivating enzyme (PRE), preilluminated with wavelengths ranging from the near-UV to the red spectral region, forms with 254 nm-irradiated transforming DNA of Haemophilus influenzae enzyme-substrate complexes that are more efficiently photorepaired than complexes formed from non-preilluminated PRE [4].

High impact information on PHR1


Biological context of PHR1

  • Basal-level and damage-induced expression of PHR1 require an upstream activation sequence, UAS(PHR1), which has homology with DRC elements found upstream of at least 19 other DNA repair and DNA metabolism genes in yeast [8].
  • The primary regulator of the PHR1 damage response is a 39-bp sequence called URS(PHR1) which is the binding site for a protein(s) that constitutes the damage-responsive repressor PRP [7].
  • Both proteins contain two putative zinc fingers that are identical throughout the DNA binding region, and deletion of both RPH1 and GIS1 is required to fully derepress PHR1 in the absence of damage [7].
  • Rph1, a Cys2-His2 zinc finger protein, binds to an upstream repressing sequence of the photolyase gene PHR1, and represses its transcription in response to DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [9].
  • Phosphorylation of Rph1, a damage-responsive repressor of PHR1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is dependent upon Rad53 kinase [9].

Anatomical context of PHR1

  • Characterization of Pneumocystis carinii PHR1, a pH-regulated gene important for cell wall Integrity [10].
  • The phr1 expression was also detected in presence of alpha-tomatine, a glycoalkaloid from tomato damaging cell membranes, suggesting that phr1 is induced by this cellular stress [11].
  • The opposite was true also as HeLa cell free extract specifically inhibited the photorepair of a thymine dimer by DNA photolyase and its removal by (A)BC excinuclease [12].

Associations of PHR1 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of PHR1

  • Multiple copies of UME6 stimulate expression from UAS(PHR1) and the intact PHR1 gene [8].

Other interactions of PHR1

  • Deletion of UME6 abolishes this induction, decreases the steady-state concentration of photolyase molecules and PHR1 mRNA, and increases the UV sensitivity of a rad2 mutant [8].
  • A C. glabrata gene family, CgGAS1-3, that shares significant homologies with both the GAS1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is necessary for cell wall assembly, and the pH-regulated genes PHR1 and PHR2 of Candida albicans, which are involved in cell wall assembly and required for virulence, has been cloned [16].
  • We showed that PHR1 immunoprecipitates with either myosin tail by using protein extracts from cotransfected HEK293 cells [17].
  • The process by which Pneumocystis carinii constructs its cell wall is not well known, although recent studies reveal that molecules such as beta-1-3-glucan synthetase (GSC1) and environmental pH-responsive genes such as PHR1 are important for cell-wall integrity [18].
  • Under inducing conditions, E. coli cells carrying the tac-PHR1 plasmid pCB1241 accumulate up to 8% of total cellular protein as yeast photolyase; similarly, the GAL10-PHR1 fusion plasmid pGBS107 directs the synthesis of at least 1800-2400 molecules of photolyase per log-phase yeast cell [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PHR1


  1. Interactions between yeast photolyase and nucleotide excision repair proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Sancar, G.B., Smith, F.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of microinjected photoreactivating enzyme on thymine dimer removal and DNA repair synthesis in normal human and xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts. Roza, L., Vermeulen, W., Bergen Henegouwen, J.B., Eker, A.P., Jaspers, N.G., Lohman, P.H., Hoeijmakers, J.H. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning, sequencing, expression and characterization of DNA photolyase from Salmonella typhimurium. Li, Y.F., Sancar, A. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Analysis of photoenzymatic repair of UV lesions in DNA by single light flashes. XII. Evidence for enhanced photolysis enzyme-substrate complexes by a 2-photon reaction. Harm, W. Mutat. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  5. Evidence for lack of DNA photoreactivating enzyme in humans. Li, Y.F., Kim, S.T., Sancar, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. A damage-responsive DNA binding protein regulates transcription of the yeast DNA repair gene PHR1. Sebastian, J., Sancar, G.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. RPH1 and GIS1 are damage-responsive repressors of PHR1. Jang, Y.K., Wang, L., Sancar, G.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of UME6 in transcriptional regulation of a DNA repair gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sweet, D.H., Jang, Y.K., Sancar, G.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Phosphorylation of Rph1, a damage-responsive repressor of PHR1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is dependent upon Rad53 kinase. Kim, E.M., Jang, Y.K., Park, S.D. Nucleic Acids Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of Pneumocystis carinii PHR1, a pH-regulated gene important for cell wall Integrity. Kottom, T.J., Thomas, C.F., Limper, A.H. J. Bacteriol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. The photolyase gene from the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is induced by visible light and alpha-tomatine from tomato plant. Alejandre-Durán, E., Roldán-Arjona, T., Ariza, R.R., Ruiz-Rubio, M. Fungal Genet. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Substrate overlap and functional competition between human nucleotide excision repair and Escherichia coli photolyase and (a)BC excision nuclease. Sibghat-Ullah, n.u.l.l., Sancar, A. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression of the yeast PHR1 gene is induced by DNA-damaging agents. Sebastian, J., Kraus, B., Sancar, G.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Cloning and characterization of EPD2, a gene required for efficient pseudohyphal formation of a dimorphic yeast, Candida maltosa. Nakazawa, T., Takahashi, M., Horiuchi, H., Ohta, A., Takagi, M. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Yeast DNA photolyase: molecular weight, subunit structure, and reconstruction of active enzyme from its subunits. Boatwright, D.T., Madden, J.J., Denson, J., Werbin, H. Biochemistry (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. A GAS-like gene family in the pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata. Weig, M., Haynes, K., Rogers, T.R., Kurzai, O., Frosch, M., Mühlschlegel, F.A. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. PHR1, an integral membrane protein of the inner ear sensory cells, directly interacts with myosin 1c and myosin VIIa. Etournay, R., El-Amraoui, A., Bahloul, A., Blanchard, S., Roux, I., Pézeron, G., Michalski, N., Daviet, L., Hardelin, J.P., Legrain, P., Petit, C. J. Cell. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Pneumocystis carinii BCK1 functions in a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade regulating fungal cell-wall assembly. Thomas, C.F., Vohra, P.K., Park, J.G., Puri, V., Limper, A.H., Kottom, T.J. FEBS Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Construction of plasmids which lead to overproduction of yeast PHR1 photolyase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Sancar, G.B., Smith, F.W. Gene (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. The role of conserved amino acids in substrate binding and discrimination by photolyase. Baer, M.E., Sancar, G.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in xeroderma pigmentosum cells after microinjection of yeast photoreactivating enzyme. Zwetsloot, J.C., Hoeymakers, J.H., Vermeulen, W., Eker, A.P., Bootsma, D. Mutat. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Purification from baker's yeast of an activator of DNA photolyase. Madden, J.J., Denson, J., Werbin, H. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1976) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities