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Gene Review

xylA  -  D-xylose isomerase

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK3554, JW3537
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Disease relevance of xylA


High impact information on xylA


Chemical compound and disease context of xylA


Biological context of xylA

  • Moreover, in mineral medium containing a sugar mixture of 5% glucose and 2.5% xylose, oxygen-deprived strain CRX2 cells simultaneously consumed both sugars, demonstrating the absence of diauxic phenomena relative to the new xylA-xylB construct, albeit glucose-mediated regulation still exerted a measurable influence on xylose consumption kinetics [14].
  • Deletion of 5' upstream regions of xylA on these plasmids and their substitution by a lac promoter resulted in a xylose-positive phenotype [1].
  • The identification and mapping of xyl gene promoters suggest that the xylA and xylB genes are organized as an operon having a single xylose inducible promoter preceding the xylA gene [15].
  • The gene (xylA) that encodes it has been cloned by complementing a xylA mutant of the ancestral strain, with the use of a shuttle vector [16].
  • Deletion of 184 bp from the 5' part of the xylA reading frame reduces glucose repression to only twofold [17].

Associations of xylA with chemical compounds


Other interactions of xylA

  • Controlled expression mediated by the suppressor was demonstrated for the lacZ and xylA amber mutants [19].
  • In E. coli, complementation was achieved through integration of ispF at the araBAD locus with control from the arabinose-inducible araBAD promoter, while in B. subtilis, yacN was placed at amyE under control of the xylose-inducible xylA promoter [20].
  • As an example of the general utility, we demonstrate treA expression under xylA-operator-promoter control [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of xylA


  1. Cloning and expression of the genes for xylose isomerase and xylulokinase from Klebsiella pneumoniae 1033 in Escherichia coli K12. Feldmann, S.D., Sahm, H., Sprenger, G.A. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular cloning and functional expression in lactobacillus plantarum 80 of xylT, encoding the D-xylose-H+ symporter of Lactobacillus brevis. Chaillou, S., Bor, Y.C., Batt, C.A., Postma, P.W., Pouwels, P.H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. The xylose isomerase-encoding gene (xylA) of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum: cloning, sequencing and phylogeny of XylA enzymes. Meaden, P.G., Aduse-Opoku, J., Reizer, J., Reizer, A., Lanceman, Y.A., Martin, M.F., Mitchell, W.J. Gene (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. xylA cloning and sequencing and biochemical characterization of xylose isomerase from Thermotoga neapolitana. Vieille, C., Hess, J.M., Kelly, R.M., Zeikus, J.G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Selective cloning of Bacillus subtilis xylose isomerase and xylulokinase in Escherichia coli genes by IS5-mediated expression. Wilhelm, M., Hollenberg, C.P. EMBO J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular cloning, DNA structure and expression of the Escherichia coli D-xylose isomerase. Briggs, K.A., Lancashire, W.E., Hartley, B.S. EMBO J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Catalytic mechanism of xylose (glucose) isomerase from Clostridium thermosulfurogenes. Characterization of the structural gene and function of active site histidine. Lee, C.Y., Bagdasarian, M., Meng, M.H., Zeikus, J.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Xylose isomerase from Escherichia coli. Characterization of the protein and the structural gene. Schellenberg, G.D., Sarthy, A., Larson, A.E., Backer, M.P., Crabb, J.W., Lidstrom, M., Hall, B.D., Furlong, C.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Nucleotide sequence of the Bacillus subtilis xylose isomerase gene: extensive homology between the Bacillus and Escherichia coli enzyme. Wilhelm, M., Hollenberg, C.P. Nucleic Acids Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Cloning and expression of the Clostridium thermosulfurogenes glucose isomerase gene in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Lee, C.Y., Bhatnagar, L., Saha, B.C., Lee, Y.E., Takagi, M., Imanaka, T., Bagdasarian, M., Zeikus, J.G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Gene organization of the first catabolic operon of TOL plasmid pWW53: production of indigo by the xylA gene product. Keil, H., Saint, C.M., Williams, P.A. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular cloning and expression of a thermostable xylose (glucose) isomerase gene, xylA, from Streptomyces chibaensis J-59. Joo, G.J., Shin, S., Heo, G.Y., Kim, Y.M., Rhee, I.K. J. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. The structure of rhamnose isomerase from Escherichia coli and its relation with xylose isomerase illustrates a change between inter and intra-subunit complementation during evolution. Korndörfer, I.P., Fessner, W.D., Matthews, B.W. J. Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Engineering of a Xylose Metabolic Pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Kawaguchi, H., Vertès, A.A., Okino, S., Inui, M., Yukawa, H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Cloning and characterization of the xyl genes from Escherichia coli. Rosenfeld, S.A., Stevis, P.E., Ho, N.W. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. D-Xylose (D-glucose) isomerase from Arthrobacter strain N.R.R.L. B3728. Gene cloning, sequence and expression. Loviny-Anderton, T., Shaw, P.C., Shin, M.K., Hartley, B.S. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Catabolite repression of the xyl operon in Bacillus megaterium. Rygus, T., Hillen, W. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Gene order of the TOL catabolic plasmid upper pathway operon and oxidation of both toluene and benzyl alcohol by the xylA product. Harayama, S., Leppik, R.A., Rekik, M., Mermod, N., Lehrbach, P.R., Reineke, W., Timmis, K.N. J. Bacteriol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Gene replacement without selection: regulated suppression of amber mutations in Escherichia coli. Herring, C.D., Glasner, J.D., Blattner, F.R. Gene (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of the depletion of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Campbell, T.L., Brown, E.D. J. Bacteriol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Vectors using the phospho-alpha-(1,1)-glucosidase-encoding gene treA of Bacillus subtilis as a reporter. Schöck, F., Gotsche, S., Dahl, M.K. Gene (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Characterization of five genes in the upper-pathway operon of TOL plasmid pWW0 from Pseudomonas putida and identification of the gene products. Harayama, S., Rekik, M., Wubbolts, M., Rose, K., Leppik, R.A., Timmis, K.N. J. Bacteriol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Crystallographic studies of the mechanism of xylose isomerase. Farber, G.K., Glasfeld, A., Tiraby, G., Ringe, D., Petsko, G.A. Biochemistry (1989) [Pubmed]
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