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MeSH Review

Penicillin Resistance

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Disease relevance of Penicillin Resistance


High impact information on Penicillin Resistance

  • Pneumococci can be screened for penicillin resistance with a modified Kirby--Bauer technic; the strains with zones of less than 35 mm around 6-microgram penicillin disks or less than 25 mm around 5-microgram methicillin disks should be tested for sensitivity to penicillin by measurements of minimum inhibitory concentration [6].
  • Tolerance is thus a common, clinically important form of penicillin resistance, that differs from previously described forms of pencillin resistance, that due to beta-lactamase, and that due to "intrinsic" (e.g., methicillin resistance) mechanisms [7].
  • Several different alleles of murM cloned in plasmid pLS578 and introduced into a murM deletion mutant of the penicillin-resistant strain Pen6 were able to reconstitute each one of the three mutant phenotypes: the highly branched cell wall structure, original high level of penicillin resistance, and normal sensitivity to lysis [8].
  • Plasmid-mediated gentamicin resistance in up to 50% of enterococcal isolates, along with enhanced penicillin resistance in some strains, leaves few therapeutic options [9].
  • Recognition is increasing of the standard screening procedure for penicillin resistance, using a 1-microgram oxacillin disk [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Penicillin Resistance


Biological context of Penicillin Resistance


Anatomical context of Penicillin Resistance


Associations of Penicillin Resistance with chemical compounds


Gene context of Penicillin Resistance

  • To further link the expression of the ABC phosphate transporter with penicillin resistance, we looked at pstS mRNA levels in 12 independent clinical isolates sensitive and resistant to penicillin and found an excellent correlation between resistance and increased expression of pstS [1].
  • Rapid chemiluminescent nucleic acid assays for detection of TEM-1 beta-lactamase-mediated penicillin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and other bacteria [27].
  • The loss of beta-lactamase activity was associated with a reduction in the level of penicillin resistance conferred by the mutants upon their host strain [18].
  • The problems due to possible spread of MRSA to the community, emergence of penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae, ampicillin resistance in H. influenzae, and multiresistance among common enteric pathogens are highlighted [28].
  • Transformation experiments with pbp1b and 2a genes isolated from two resistant strains (MICs, 4 and 16 microg/mL) failed to transform pneumococcal strains to increased levels of penicillin resistance [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Penicillin Resistance


  1. A proteomic analysis of penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae reveals a novel role for PstS, a subunit of the phosphate ABC transporter. Soualhine, H., Brochu, V., Ménard, F., Papadopoulou, B., Weiss, K., Bergeron, M.G., Légaré, D., Drummelsmith, J., Ouellette, M. Mol. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Contribution of a TEM-1-like beta-lactamase to penicillin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Bergström, S., Norlander, L., Norqvist, A., Normark, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Association of a penicillin resistance gene with a tetracycline resistance plasmid (PTP-2) in Staphylococcus aureus. Kono, M., Sasatsu, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. Penicillin- and cephalosporin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerging treatment for an emerging problem. Klugman, K.P., Feldman, C. Drugs (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Prevalence and mechanisms of macrolide resistance in invasive and noninvasive group B streptococcus isolates from Ontario, Canada. de Azavedo, J.C., McGavin, M., Duncan, C., Low, D.E., McGeer, A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Emergence of multiply resistant pneumococci. Jacobs, M.R., Koornhof, H.J., Robins-Browne, R.M., Stevenson, C.M., Vermaak, Z.A., Freiman, I., Miller, G.B., Witcomb, M.A., Isaäcson, M., Ward, J.I., Austrian, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  7. A new type of penicillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus. Sabath, L.D., Wheeler, N., Laverdiere, M., Blazevic, D., Wilkinson, B.J. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. The murMN operon: a functional link between antibiotic resistance and antibiotic tolerance in Streptococcuspneumoniae. Filipe, S.R., Severina, E., Tomasz, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Hospital-acquired infections: diseases with increasingly limited therapies. Swartz, M.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Pneumococcal resistance to antibiotics. Klugman, K.P. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Clindamycin therapy of experimental meningitis caused by penicillin- and cephalosporin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. París, M.M., Shelton, S., Trujillo, M., Hickey, S.M., McCracken, G.H. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Multicenter, comparative study of enoxacin and ceftriaxone for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea. Pabst, K.M., Siegel, N.A., Smith, S., Black, J.R., Handsfield, H.H., Hook, E.W. Sexually transmitted diseases. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Determination of penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and use of co-trimoxazole in treatment of pneumococcal pneumoniae. Lalitha, M.K., Manoharan, A., Pai, R., Thomas, K. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Role of the reference laboratory in susceptibility testing of anaerobes and a survey of isolates referred from laboratories in England and Wales during 1993-1994. Duerden, B.I. Clin. Infect. Dis. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Comparative activity of twelve beta-lactam drugs tested against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from five medical centers: effects of serum protein and capsular material on potency and spectrum as measured by reference tests. Johnson, D.M., Doern, G.V., Haugen, T.A., Hindler, J., Washington, J.A., Jones, R.N. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Chromosomal locus for staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Shafer, W.M., Iandolo, J.J. Infect. Immun. (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Association of a thr-371 substitution in a conserved amino acid motif of penicillin-binding protein 1A with penicillin resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Asahi, Y., Ubukata, K. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of beta-lactamase-deficient (bla) mutants of the R plasmid R1 in Escherichia coli K-12 and comparison with similar mutants of RP1. Crowlesmith, I., Howe, T.G. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. From ecological reservoir to disease: the nasopharynx, day-care centres and drug-resistant clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae. De Lencastre, H., Tomasz, A. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Beta-Lactam antibiotic resistance in gram-positive bacterial pathogens of the upper respiratory tract: a brief overview of mechanisms. Tomasz, A., Munoz, R. Microb. Drug Resist. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Mechanism of intrinsic penicillin-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Binding of penicillin G to the cytoplasmic membrane of resistant staphylococci. Bruns, W., Keppeler, H. Arzneimittel-Forschung. (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. A proteomic analysis of erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Cash, P., Argo, E., Ford, L., Lawrie, L., McKenzie, H. Electrophoresis (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from outpatients in the United States during the winter months of 1994 to 1995: results of a 30-center national surveillance study. Doern, G.V., Brueggemann, A., Holley, H.P., Rauch, A.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Comparison of daptomycin, vancomycin, and ampicillin-gentamicin for treatment of experimental endocarditis caused by penicillin-resistant enterococci. Ramos, M.C., Grayson, M.L., Eliopoulos, G.M., Bayer, A.S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Increased rate of isolation of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a children's hospital and in vitro susceptibilities to antibiotics of potential therapeutic use. Mason, E.O., Kaplan, S.L., Lamberth, L.B., Tillman, J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Molecular epidemiology of penicillin-resistant and ciprofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada. Nichol, K.A., Zhanel, G.G., Hoban, D.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Rapid chemiluminescent nucleic acid assays for detection of TEM-1 beta-lactamase-mediated penicillin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and other bacteria. Sanchez-Pescador, R., Stempien, M.S., Urdea, M.S. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Emerging problems of antibiotic resistance in community medicine. Parasakthi, N. The Malaysian journal of pathology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Analysis of penicillin-binding protein lb and 2a genes from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Du Plessis, M., Smith, A.M., Klugman, K.P. Microb. Drug Resist. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Alterations in PBP 1A essential-for high-level penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Smith, A.M., Klugman, K.P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Complex relationship between acquisition of beta-lactam resistance and loss of virulence in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Rieux, V., Carbon, C., Azoulay-Dupuis, E. J. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. The occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus on a farm with small-scale production of raw milk cheese. Jørgensen, H.J., Mørk, T., Rørvik, L.M. J. Dairy Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
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