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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Anestrus


High impact information on Anestrus


Biological context of Anestrus


Anatomical context of Anestrus


Associations of Anestrus with chemical compounds


Gene context of Anestrus

  • To study the effect of starvation on hypothalamic beta-endorphin and somatostatin (SRIF) concentrations in relation to starvation induced anestrus, groups of 8 rats were fed 50% of their normal daily chow consumption [22].
  • Increased concentrations of circulating prolactin (Prl) seen in these animals are not responsible for the reversal of photoperiodic anestrus as demonstrated by experimental manipulations of prolactin secretion [23].
  • We therefore examined GnRH neurons of breeding season (BS) and nonbreeding season (anestrus) ewes and tested the hypotheses that specific (i.e. gamma-aminobutyric acid, catecholamine, neuropeptide Y, or beta-endorphin) inputs to GnRH neurons change seasonally, and concomitant with any changes in neural inputs is a change in glial apposition [24].
  • E2 treatment produced a 3-fold increase in the percentage of ERalpha-positive cells expressing Fos (15.1% vs. 3.4%) in anestrus, but failed to increase ERalpha/Fos colocalization (1.8% vs. 3.5%) during the breeding season [25].
  • Changes in serum levels of PRL have been implicated in the development of seasonal reproductive quiescence in male hamsters, yet the role of serum PRL in seasonal anestrus in the female has not been examined [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Anestrus


  1. Mechanism of anestrus in rats treated with an antihypertensive agent, losulazine hydrochloride. Mesfin, G.M., Johnson, G.A., Higgins, M.J., Morris, D.F. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Resynchronizing estrus and ovulation after not-pregnant diagnosis and various ovarian states including cysts. Stevenson, J.S., Tiffany, S.M. J. Dairy Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Application of progesterone measurement for age and body weight at puberty, and postpartum anestrus in Korean native cattle. So, C.H., Kang, H.G., Kim, S.H. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of growth hormone in canine mammary tissue and mammary tumors. Evidence for a potential autocrine/paracrine stimulatory loop. van Garderen, E., de Wit, M., Voorhout, W.F., Rutteman, G.R., Mol, J.A., Nederbragt, H., Misdorp, W. Am. J. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of cellular retinol- and cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins in the rat cervical epithelium is regulated by endocrine stimuli during normal squamous metaplasia. Tannous-Khuri, L., Hillemanns, P., Rajan, N., Wright, T.C., Talmage, D.A. Am. J. Pathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Long-day suppressed expression of type 2 deiodinase gene in the mediobasal hypothalamus of the Saanen goat, a short-day breeder: implication for seasonal window of thyroid hormone action on reproductive neuroendocrine axis. Yasuo, S., Nakao, N., Ohkura, S., Iigo, M., Hagiwara, S., Goto, A., Ando, H., Yamamura, T., Watanabe, M., Watanabe, T., Oda, S., Maeda, K., Lincoln, G.A., Okamura, H., Ebihara, S., Yoshimura, T. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Does the type II glucocorticoid receptor mediate cortisol-induced suppression in pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin-releasing hormone? Breen, K.M., Stackpole, C.A., Clarke, I.J., Pytiak, A.V., Tilbrook, A.J., Wagenmaker, E.R., Young, E.A., Karsch, F.J. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Progesterone metabolism by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of the aged rat. Marrone, B.L., Karavolas, H.J. Endocrinology (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Concurrent pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone during different phases of the estrous cycle and anestrus in beagle bitches. Kooistra, H.S., Okkens, A.C., Bevers, M.M., Popp-Snijders, C., van Haaften, B., Dieleman, S.J., Schoemaker, J. Biol. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Male reproductive condition is the limiting factor of efficiency in the male effect during seasonal anestrus in female goats. Flores, J.A., Véliz, F.G., Pérez-Villanueva, J.A., Martínez De La Escalera, G., Chemineau, P., Poindron, P., Malpaux, B., Delgadillo, J.A. Biol. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Enhancement of aromatase gene expression in the mediobasal hypothalamus during anestrus in the beagle bitch. Inaba, T., Namura, T., Tani, H., Matsuyama, S., Torii, R., Kawate, N., Tamada, H., Hatoya, S., Kumagai, D., Sugiura, K., Sawada, T. Neurosci. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of stage of anestrus on the induction of estrus by the dopamine agonist cabergoline in dogs. Verstegen, J.P., Onclin, K., Silva, L.D., Concannon, P.W. Theriogenology (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Thyroxine is permissive to seasonal transitions in reproductive neuroendocrine activity in the ewe. Dahl, G.E., Evans, N.P., Thrun, L.A., Karsch, F.J. Biol. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Further evidence that serotonin mediates the steroid-independent inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion in anestrous ewes. Whisnant, C.S., Goodman, R.L. Biol. Reprod. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Increasing gonadotropin-releasing hormone release by perifused hypothalamus from early to late anestrus in the beagle bitch. Tani, H., Inaba, T., Tamada, H., Sawada, T., Mori, J., Torii, R. Neurosci. Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Genistein, a phytoestrogen, effectively modulates luteinizing hormone and prolactin secretion in ovariectomized ewes during seasonal anestrus. Romanowicz, K., Misztal, T., Barcikowski, B. Neuroendocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of season on neuropeptide Y and galanin within the hypothalamus of the ewe in relation to plasma luteinizing hormone concentrations and the breeding season: an immunohistochemical analysis. Barker-Gibb, M.L., Clarke, I.J. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone and the secretion of ovarian steroids in sheep during anestrus. Scaramuzzi, R.J., Baird, D.T. Endocrinology (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Pineal melatonin secretion drives the reproductive response to daylength in the ewe. Bittman, E.L., Dempsey, R.J., Karsch, F.J. Endocrinology (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Temporal requirements of thyroid hormones for seasonal changes in LH secretion. Billings, H.J., Viguié, C., Karsch, F.J., Goodman, R.L., Connors, J.M., Anderson, G.M. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Neurotransmitters involved in mediating the steroid-dependent suppression of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in anestrous ewes: effects of receptor antagonists. Meyer, S.L., Goodman, R.L. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Changes of beta-endorphin and somatostatin concentrations in different hypothalamic areas of female rats after chronic starvation. Knuth, U.A., Friesen, H.G. Life Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Exercise reverses photoperiodic anestrus in golden hamsters. Borer, K.T., Campbell, C.S., Tabor, J., Jorgenson, K., Kandarian, S., Gordon, L. Biol. Reprod. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Seasonal plasticity within the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system of the ewe: changes in identified GnRH inputs and glial association. Jansen, H.T., Cutter, C., Hardy, S., Lehman, M.N., Goodman, R.L. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. The ability of estradiol to induce Fos expression in a subset of estrogen receptor-alpha-containing neurons in the preoptic area of the ewe depends on reproductive status. Stefanovic, I., Adrian, B., Jansen, H.T., Lehman, M.N., Goodman, R.L. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. The interaction of estradiol and daylength in modifying serum prolactin secretion in female hamsters. Widmaier, E.P., Campbell, C.S. Endocrinology (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Pregnancy-specific elevations in fecal concentrations of estradiol, testosterone and progesterone in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Gudermuth, D.F., Concannon, P.W., Daels, P.F., Lasley, B.L. Theriogenology (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Progesterone monitoring of anestrous dairy cows and subsequent treatment with a prostaglandin F2 alpha analog or gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Humblot, P., Thibier, M. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
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