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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Hyperprolactinemia


Psychiatry related information on Hyperprolactinemia


High impact information on Hyperprolactinemia


Chemical compound and disease context of Hyperprolactinemia


Biological context of Hyperprolactinemia


Anatomical context of Hyperprolactinemia


Gene context of Hyperprolactinemia

  • Previous investigations have demonstrated that GnRH agonists also suppress GHRH-stimulated GH release in normal men and women and PRL levels in subjects with hyperprolactinemia [29].
  • This suggests that hyperprolactinemia inhibits GnRH-R responses to GnRH in females by a direct action on the pituitary gonadotroph [30].
  • Suckling-induced hyperprolactinemia did not participate in the increase in ARH NPY activity, whereas it played a major stimulatory role in suckling-induced activation of NPY neurons in the DMH and an inhibitory role in suckling-induced suppression of TIDA activity [31].
  • Specifically, hyperprolactinemia gives rise to prostate hyperplasia, and prostate size is reduced in PRL-deficient mice [32].
  • Since hyperprolactinemia associates in these patients with depressed EPO production, it may be regarded as a compensatory mechanism for the reduced availability of the hemopoietic factor [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hyperprolactinemia


  1. Lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis as a cause of central diabetes insipidus. Imura, H., Nakao, K., Shimatsu, A., Ogawa, Y., Sando, T., Fujisawa, I., Yamabe, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Pituitary lactotroph hyperplasia and chronic hyperprolactinemia in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice. Kelly, M.A., Rubinstein, M., Asa, S.L., Zhang, G., Saez, C., Bunzow, J.R., Allen, R.G., Hnasko, R., Ben-Jonathan, N., Grandy, D.K., Low, M.J. Neuron (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Metabolic clearance and production rates of prolactin in man. Cooper, D.S., Ridgway, E.C., Kliman, B., Kjellberg, R.N., Maloof, F. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. hyperprolactinemia of portal hypertension in rats. Bauer, A.G., de Greef, W.J., de Jong, F.H., Wilson, J.H., Lamberts, S.W. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Masked hyperprolactinemia in a case of aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma. Oki, Y., Yagi, T., Yoshimi, T. Ann. Intern. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of bromocriptine on affect and libido in hyperprolactinemia. Koppelman, M.C., Parry, B.L., Hamilton, J.A., Alagna, S.W., Loriaux, D.L. The American journal of psychiatry. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Life events in the pathogenesis of hyperprolactinemia. Sonino, N., Navarrini, C., Ruini, C., Fallo, F., Boscaro, M., Fava, G.A. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Use of the dopamine agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline in the management of risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in patients with psychotic disorders. Tollin, S.R. J. Endocrinol. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Severe erectile dysfunction is a marker for hyperprolactinemia. Johri, A.M., Heaton, J.P., Morales, A. Int. J. Impot. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Reversible thioridazine-induced magnetic resonance imaging-documented pituitary enlargement associated with hyperprolactinemia. Maas, D.L., Hunt, S., Mark, L., Drobny, E.C. Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Pergolide for the treatment of pituitary tumors secreting prolactin or growth hormone. Kleinberg, D.L., Boyd, A.E., Wardlaw, S., Frantz, A.G., George, A., Bryan, N., Hilal, S., Greising, J., Hamilton, D., Seltzer, T., Sommers, C.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Decreased spinal mineral content in amenorrheic women. Cann, C.E., Martin, M.C., Genant, H.K., Jaffe, R.B. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Lack of prolactin receptor signaling in mice results in lactotroph proliferation and prolactinomas by dopamine-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Schuff, K.G., Hentges, S.T., Kelly, M.A., Binart, N., Kelly, P.A., Iuvone, P.M., Asa, S.L., Low, M.J. J. Clin. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Osteoporosis in men with hyperprolactinemic hypogonadism. Greenspan, S.L., Neer, R.M., Ridgway, E.C., Klibanski, A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome: diagnosis and therapy. Boyd, A.E., Reichlin, S., Turksoy, R.N. Ann. Intern. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  16. Importance of gonadal steroids to bone mass in men with hyperprolactinemic hypogonadism. Greenspan, S.L., Oppenheim, D.S., Klibanski, A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Endocrine function following complex partial seizures. Pritchard, P.B., Wannamaker, B.B., Sagel, J., Nair, R., DeVillier, C. Ann. Neurol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Modification of the effect of a gonadoliberin analog on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors by hormone replacement. Rose, D.P., Pruitt, B. Cancer Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Primary empty sella, hyperprolactinemia, and isolated ACTH deficiency after postpartum hemorrhage. Stacpoole, P.W., Kandell, T.W., Fisher, W.R. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Hyperprolactinemia, distress, and hostility. Kellner, R., Buckman, M.T., Fava, G.A., Pathak, D. The American journal of psychiatry. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Sulpiride treatment during early human pregnancy: effect on the levels of prolactin, six steroids, and placental lactogen. Ylikorkala, O., Kivinen, S., Rönnberg, L., Viinikka, L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Orgasm-induced prolactin secretion: feedback control of sexual drive? Krüger, T.H., Haake, P., Hartmann, U., Schedlowski, M., Exton, M.S. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. A human beta-endorphin pituitary adenoma. Trouillas, J., Girod, C., Sassolas, G., Vitte, P.A., Claustrat, B., Perrin, G., Lhéritier, M., Fischer, C., Dubois, M.P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Estrogen-induced galactorrhea in man. Draznin, B., Maman, A. Arch. Intern. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Hypothalamo-hypophyseal thyroid and gonadal function before and after erythropoietin therapy in dialysis patients. Ramirez, G., Bittle, P.A., Sanders, H., Bercu, B.B. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Adrenocortical function in hyperprolactinemic women. Carter, J.N., Tyson, J.E., Warne, G.L., McNeilly, A.S., Faiman, C., Friesen, H.G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1977) [Pubmed]
  27. The natural history of idiopathic hyperprolactinemia. Martin, T.L., Kim, M., Malarkey, W.B. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemia impairs ovarian follicle maturation and corpus luteum function in women. Kauppila, A., Leinonen, P., Vihko, R., Ylöstalo, P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. The effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists on adrenocorticotropin and cortisol secretion in adult premenopausal women. Wilson, E.E., Little, B.B., Byrd, W., McGee, E., Carr, B.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor responses to GnRH in hypothalamus-lesioned rats: inhibition of responses by hyperprolactinemia and evidence that testosterone and estradiol modulate gonadotropin secretion at postreceptor sites. Pieper, D.R., Gala, R.R., Schiff, M.A., Regiani, S.R., Marshall, J.C. Endocrinology (1984) [Pubmed]
  31. Neuropeptide Y and tuberoinfundibular dopamine activities are altered during lactation: role of prolactin. Li, C., Chen, P., Smith, M.S. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Epithelial defect in prostates of Stat5a-null mice. Nevalainen, M.T., Ahonen, T.J., Yamashita, H., Chandrashekar, V., Bartke, A., Grimley, P.M., Robinson, G.W., Hennighausen, L., Rui, H. Lab. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Association between elevated prolactin levels and circulating erythroid precursors in dialyzed patients. Bellone, G., Rollino, C., Borsa, S., Ferrero, I., Martina, G., Carbone, A., Mareschi, K., Quarello, F., Piccoli, G., Emanuelli, G., Matera, L. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Primary radiotherapy of prolactinomas. Eight- to 15-year follow-up. Mehta, A.E., Reyes, F.I., Faiman, C. Am. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  35. Normalization of androgen and sex hormone-binding globulin levels after treatment of hyperprolactinemia. Lobo, R.A., Kletzky, O.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1983) [Pubmed]
  36. Correlation of hyperprolactinemia with altered plasma insulin and glucagon: similarity to effects of late human pregnancy. Gustafson, A.B., Banasiak, M.F., Kalkhoff, R.K., Hagen, T.C., Kim, H.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1980) [Pubmed]
  37. Ovarian dependence for pituitary tumorigenesis in D2 dopamine receptor-deficient mice. Hentges, S.T., Low, M.J. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Adverse events related to olanzapine. Conley, R.R., Meltzer, H.Y. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2000) [Pubmed]
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