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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Phoca

  • They were also investigated with 16 newly developed MAbs directed against the fusion (F) and large glycoprotein (named H in analogy with measles virus) of phocid distemper virus (PDV) isolated from a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) [1].
  • As the function of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in protection against and adaptation to hypoxia has been recognized in terrestrial animals, we have investigated the genomics and expression of this protein in ringed seal (Phoca hispida) in order to determine if it may play a protective role in this diving mammal [2].
  • Toxic equivalency factors given by Safe (1990) was used for calculation of the contribution to dioxin-like toxicity from the coplanar CB congeners, and the result was compared to literature data on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans in harbor seal [3].
  • Influenza A virus of serotype Hav1 Neq1 (H7N7 by the 1980 revised influenza typing system proposed by WHO experts) was repeatedly isolated from lung and brain tissues taken from harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) found suffering from pneumonia on Cape Cod Peninsula (U.S.A.) in the winter of 1979-1980 [4].
  • In a semi-field study, we previously showed that harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) fed herring from the contaminated Baltic Sea had lower natural killer cell activity, T-lymphocyte functionality and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses than seals fed herring from the relatively uncontaminated Atlantic Ocean [5].

High impact information on Phoca

  • In this study, we investigated the response of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) to the underwater calls of different populations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) [6].
  • Comparison with the cytochrome b gene of the Hawaiian monk seal and the Weddell seal suggested that the lineage of these two species and that of the grey and harbor seals separated approximately 8 million years ago [7].
  • Two groups of 11 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) originating from a relatively uncontaminated area were fed herring from either the highly polluted Baltic Sea or the relatively uncontaminated Atlantic Ocean [8].
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in ringed seal (Phoca hispida) tissues [2].
  • A suite of 37 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and all of the homologue groups from mono- to deca-brominated were determined in ringed seal (Phoca hispida) blubber collected from subsistence hunts in the Canadian Arctic in 1981, 1991, 1996, and 2000 [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Phoca


Biological context of Phoca


Anatomical context of Phoca


Associations of Phoca with chemical compounds

  • In a 2.5-year study, we fed herring from either the relatively uncontaminated Atlantic Ocean or the contaminated Baltic Sea to two groups of captive harbor seals and monitored immune function in the seals [19].
  • Progesterone and oestradiol-17 beta concentration profiles throughout the reproductive cycle in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) [20].
  • Based on our food basket results, the estimated daily intake of sigmaPCB toxic equivalents to dioxin by Puget Sound harbor seals exceeds some wildlife consumption guidelines for PCBs [21].
  • Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, mercury, cadmium, copper, selenium, arsenic, and zinc in the harbour seal, Phoca vitulina, in Norwegian waters [22].
  • Distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) tissues: statistical analysis [23].

Gene context of Phoca

  • Earlier studies have shown that members of the cytochrome P4501 (CYP1) enzyme family are constitutively expressed, and are elevated in the livers of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) living in the heavily polluted Baltic Sea [24].
  • Thus, the harbor seal AHR bound TCDD with an affinity that was at least as high as that of the mouse AHR, suggesting that this seal species may be sensitive to PHAH effects [25].
  • From 16 largha seals (Phoca largha) and 15 ribbon seals (Phoca fasciata) in the coastal waters of Hokkaido, Japan, blubber chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) levels and hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) catalytic activities and their immunochemically detected protein content levels were measured [26].
  • Between 1990 and 1993 samples of hair, liver, kidney and muscle were collected from 28 ringed seals from Lake Ladoga, Phoca hispida ladogensis, 20 ringed seals, Phoca hispida hispida, and three bearded seals, Erignathus barbatus, from the White Sea for heavy-metal residue analyses in tissues [27].
  • Antibodies to influenza A virus were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the sera from two of seven Baikal seals (Phoca sibrica) and from five of six ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in Russia [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Phoca


  1. Immunological relationships between phocid and canine distemper virus studied with monoclonal antibodies. Orvell, C., Blixenkrone-Möller, M., Svansson, V., Have, P. J. Gen. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in ringed seal (Phoca hispida) tissues. Johnson, P., Elsner, R., Zenteno-Savín, T. Free Radic. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl congener levels and patterns and the identification of separate populations of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in Denmark. Storr-Hansen, E., Spliid, H. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Isolation of an influenza A virus from seals. Lang, G., Gagnon, A., Geraci, J.R. Arch. Virol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Host resistance to rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) and immune function in adult PVG rats fed herring from the contaminated Baltic Sea. Ross, P.S., Van Loveren, H., de Swart, R.L., van der Vliet, H., de Klerk, A., Timmerman, H.H., van Binnendijk, R., Brouwer, A., Vos, J.G., Osterhaus, A.D. Arch. Toxicol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Selective habituation shapes acoustic predator recognition in harbour seals. Deecke, V.B., Slater, P.J., Ford, J.K. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA molecule of the grey seal, Halichoerus grypus, and a comparison with mitochondrial sequences of other true seals. Arnason, U., Gullberg, A., Johnsson, E., Ledje, C. J. Mol. Evol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term feeding study. de Swart, R.L., Ross, P.S., Vos, J.G., Osterhaus, A.D. Environ. Health Perspect. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Exponential increases of the brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, in the Canadian Arctic from 1981 to 2000. Ikonomou, M.G., Rayne, S., Addison, R.F. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland. Sonne-Hansen, C., Dietz, R., Leifsson, P.S., Hyldstrup, L., Riget, F.F. Sci. Total Environ. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Cardiorespiratory control by carotid chemoreceptors during experimental dives in the seal. de Burgh Daly, M., Elsner, R., Angell-James, J.E. Am. J. Physiol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. Mercury and other trace elements in a pelagic Arctic marine food web (Northwater Polynya, Baffin Bay). Campbell, L.M., Norstrom, R.J., Hobson, K.A., Muir, D.C., Backus, S., Fisk, A.T. Sci. Total Environ. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Tissue sources and clinical application of four enzymes in phocid seals. Austin, T., Geraci, J.R. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Hematology and chemistry reference values for free-ranging harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and the effects of hemolysis on chemistry values of captive harbor seals. Morgan, L., Kumaresan, S., Thomas, C., MacWilliams, P. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Amoxicillin pharmacokinetics in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) following single dose intravenous administration: implications for interspecific dose scaling. Gulland, F.M., Stoskopf, M.K., Johnson, S.P., Riviere, J., Papich, M.G. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Diurnal patterns of cortisol and thyroid hormones in the Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) during summer and winter seasons. Oki, C., Atkinson, S. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Fatty acid composition of fats around the mystacial and superciliary vibrissae differs from that of blubber in the Saimaa ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis). Käkelä, R., Hyvärinen, H. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. The use of microsomal in vitro assay to study phase I biotransformation of chlorobornanes (Toxaphene) in marine mammals and birds. Possible consequences of biotransformation for bioaccumulation and genotoxicity. Boon, J.P., Sleiderink, H.M., Helle, M.S., Dekker, M., van Schanke, A., Roex, E., Hillebrand, M.T., Klamer, H.J., Govers, B., Pastor, D., Morse, D., Wester, P.G., de Boer, J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C, Pharmacol. Toxicol. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Contaminant-related suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody responses in harbor seals fed herring from the Baltic Sea. Ross, P.S., De Swart, R.L., Reijnders, P.J., Van Loveren, H., Vos, J.G., Osterhaus, A.D. Environ. Health Perspect. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Progesterone and oestradiol-17 beta concentration profiles throughout the reproductive cycle in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina). Reijnders, P.J. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Persistent organic pollutants in the diet of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) inhabiting Puget Sound, Washington (USA), and the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia (Canada): a food basket approach. Cullon, D.L., Jeffries, S.J., Ross, P.S. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, mercury, cadmium, copper, selenium, arsenic, and zinc in the harbour seal, Phoca vitulina, in Norwegian waters. Skaare, J.U., Markussen, N.H., Norheim, G., Haugen, S., Holt, G. Environ. Pollut. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) tissues: statistical analysis. Storr-Hansen, E., Spliid, H. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Characterization of xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) forms in ringed and grey seals from the Baltic Sea and reference sites. Nyman, M., Raunio, H., Taavitsainen, P., Pelkonen, O. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. cDNA cloning and characterization of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor from the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina): a biomarker of dioxin susceptibility? Kim, E.Y., Hahn, M.E. Aquat. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Hepatic microsomal cytochrome p450s and chlorinated hydrocarbons in largha and ribbon seals from Hokkaido, Japan: differential response of seal species to Ah receptor agonist exposure. Chiba, I., Sakakibara, A., Iwata, T.H., Ishizuka, M., Tanabe, S., Akahori, F., Kazusaka, A., Fujita, S. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Levels of heavy metals in seals of Lake Ladoga and the White Sea. Medvedev, N., Panichev, N., Hyvärinen, H. Sci. Total Environ. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Antibodies to human-related H3 influenza A virus in Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in Russia. Ohishi, K., Kishida, N., Ninomiya, A., Kida, H., Takada, Y., Miyazaki, N., Boltunov, A.N., Maruyama, T. Microbiol. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Immobilization of harp seals, Phoca groenlandica, by intravenous injection of ketamine. Engelhardt, F.R. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C, Comp. Pharmacol. (1977) [Pubmed]
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