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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Whales


Psychiatry related information on Whales


High impact information on Whales


Chemical compound and disease context of Whales


Biological context of Whales


Anatomical context of Whales


Associations of Whales with chemical compounds

  • Elevated concentrations of mercury ( > 50 micrograms/100 g) were found in ringed seal liver, narwhal mattak, beluga meat, and beluga mattak, and relatively high concentrations of cadmium and lead ( > 100 micrograms/100 g) were found in ringed seal liver, mussels, and kelp [26].
  • Purified diets with eight levels (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg) of supplemental biotin were fed to P. monodon (mean weight 0. 26 +/- 0.01 g) for 8 wk [12].
  • Estimation of the dietary vitamin A requirement of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon [2].
  • Purified diets with eight levels (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg) of supplemental menadione were fed to P. monodon (mean weight 1.33 +/- 0.05 g) for 12 wk [27].
  • A feeding trial was conducted to estimate the minimal dietary pantothenic acid (PA) requirement for juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon [13].

Gene context of Whales

  • cDNA cloning and characterization of a high affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor in a cetacean, the beluga, Delphinapterus leucas [28].
  • Partial nucleotide sequences of leptin were cloned and sequenced from six mammalian species: large hairy armadillo (Chaetophractus villosus), rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) [corrected], striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), raccoon (Procyon lotor), and beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) [29].
  • In beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), cytochromes P450 (phase I) and conjugating (phase II) enzymes have been extensively profiled (immunochemically and catalytically) in liver, demonstrating the importance of contaminants in relation to enzyme induction, metabolism and potential contaminant bioactivation and fate [30].
  • Using this antiserum the putative P. monodon AST receptor was localized to the sinus gland in both juvenile and adult eyestalks [31].
  • Antiserum to the Drosophila AST receptor (Dar-2) recognized a single protein in P. monodon eyestalk protein extracts that was identical in size to that found in Drosophila protein extracts [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Whales


  1. The gene encoding the nucleocapsid protein of Gill-associated nidovirus of Penaeus monodon prawns is located upstream of the glycoprotein gene. Cowley, J.A., Cadogan, L.C., Spann, K.M., Sittidilokratna, N., Walker, P.J. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Estimation of the dietary vitamin A requirement of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Shiau, S.Y., Chen, Y. J. Nutr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Hemostasis of tiger prawn Penaeus monodon affected by Vibrio harveyi, extracellular products, and a toxic cysteine protease. Lee, K.K., Chen, Y.L., Liu, P.C. Blood Cells Mol. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Interaction of pH with mercuric chloride toxicity to penaeid prawns from a tropical estuary, East Coast of India: enhanced toxicity at low pH. Das, S., Sahu, B.K. Chemosphere (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Antiserum to the gp116 glycoprotein of yellow head virus neutralizes infectivity in primary lymphoid organ cells of Penaeus monodon. Assavalapsakul, W., Tirasophon, W., Panyim, S. Dis. Aquat. Org. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Sound production by North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in surface active groups. Parks, S.E., Tyack, P.L. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Demography of the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Fujiwara, M., Caswell, H. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Rotational motions in myoglobin assessed by carbon 13 relaxation measurements at two magnetic field strengths. Visscher, R.B., Gurd, F.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. N-acetyltransferase, hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase and melatonin in the optic lobes of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Withyachumnarnkul, B., Pongtippatee, P., Ajpru, S. J. Pineal Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of amino acids and proteins. Side-chain mobility of methionine in the crystalline amino acid and in crystalline sperm whale (Physeter catodon) myoglobin. Keniry, M.A., Rothgeb, T.M., Smith, R.L., Gutowsky, H.S., Oldfield, E. Biochemistry (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Stepwise sequence determination from the carboxyl terminus of peptides. Meuth, J.L., Harris, D.E., Dwulet, F.E., Crowl-Powers, M.L., Gurd, F.R. Biochemistry (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Dietary biotin requirement for maximum growth of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Shiau, S.Y., Chin, Y.H. J. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Dietary pantothenic acid requirement of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Shiau, S.Y., Hsu, C.W. J. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Vitamin E requirements of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and effects on non-specific immune responses. Lee, M.H., Shiau, S.Y. Fish Shellfish Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Control of pathogenic Vibrio spp. by Bacillus subtilis BT23, a possible probiotic treatment for black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Vaseeharan, B., Ramasamy, P. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Subacute atropine toxicity in a pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps. Manire, C.A., Byrd, L., Rhinehart, H.L., Cunningham-Smith, P., Smith, D.R. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Nucleotide sequence of the p53 cDNA of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Xu, N., Shiraki, T., Yamada, T., Nakajima, M., Gauthier, J.M., Pfeiffer, C.J., Sato, S. Gene (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Evaluating the effects of historic bottleneck events: an assessment of microsatellite variability in the endangered, North Atlantic right whale. Waldick, R.C., Kraus, S., Brown, M., White, B.N. Mol. Ecol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Sequence variation at the major histocompatibility complex DRB loci in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhal (Monodon monoceros). Murray, B.W., White, B.N. Immunogenetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Increase of dietary vitamin C improves haemocyte respiratory burst response and growth of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon, fed with high dietary copper. Lee, M.H., Shiau, S.Y. Fish Shellfish Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Accumulation of nitrite in the tissues of Penaeus monodon exposed to elevated ambient nitrite after different time periods. Cheng, S., Chen, J.C. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Thiamin requirement of juvenile shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Chen, H.Y., Wu, F.C., Tang, S.Y. J. Nutr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Immunostimulation of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) hemocytes for generation of microbicidal substances: analysis of reactive oxygen species. Song, Y.L., Hsieh, Y.T. Dev. Comp. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Purification of the delta isoenzyme of protein kinase C from the hepatopancreas of the shrimp Penaeus monodon with phosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Huang, C.F., Chuang, N.N. J. Exp. Zool. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Stimulation of thyroid hormone secretion by thyrotropin in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas. St Aubin, D.J. Can. J. Vet. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Assessment of dietary exposure to trace metals in Baffin Inuit food. Chan, H.M., Kim, C., Khoday, K., Receveur, O., Kuhnlein, H.V. Environ. Health Perspect. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Quantifying the vitamin K requirement of juvenile marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) with menadione. Shiau, S.Y., Liu, J.S. J. Nutr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. cDNA cloning and characterization of a high affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor in a cetacean, the beluga, Delphinapterus leucas. Jensen, B.A., Hahn, M.E. Toxicol. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Molecular evolution of leptin. Doyon, C., Drouin, G., Trudeau, V.L., Moon, T.W. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. Fisk, A.T., de Wit, C.A., Wayland, M., Kuzyk, Z.Z., Burgess, N., Letcher, R., Braune, B., Norstrom, R., Blum, S.P., Sandau, C., Lie, E., Larsen, H.J., Skaare, J.U., Muir, D.C. Sci. Total Environ. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Immunolocalization of allatostatin-like neuropeptides and their putative receptor in eyestalks of the tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon. Panchan, N., Bendena, W.G., Bowser, P., Lungchukiet, P., Tobe, S.S., Sithigorngul, W., Chaivisuthangkura, P., Rangsiruji, A., Petsom, A., Pewnim, T., Sithigorngul, P. Peptides (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. A newly developed ELISA showing the effect of environmental stress on levels of hsp86 in Cherax quadricarinatus and Penaeus monodon. Cimino, E.J., Owens, L., Bromage, E., Anderson, T.A. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Amplification of multiple copies of mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene fragments in the Australian freshwater crayfish, Cherax destructor Clark (Parastacidae: Decapoda). Nguyen, T.T., Murphy, N.P., Austin, C.M. Anim. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
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