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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Apnea


Psychiatry related information on Apnea


High impact information on Apnea

  • KIF1B knockout mice die at birth from apnea due to nervous system defects [11].
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable heart failure, oral theophylline therapy reduced the number of episodes of apnea and hypopnea and the duration of arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation during sleep [12].
  • Some practices are contradictory to the Guidelines for the Determination of Brain Death in Children and to recommendations for apnea testing [13].
  • We characterize a subgroup of patients who benefit from medroxyprogesterone therapy by reducing obstructive apneas during sleep [14].
  • Apnea after intravenous diazepam [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Apnea

  • Exposure of the infected rats to ammonia exacerbated the infections, further increased the number of Monastral blue-labeled vessels and the amount of labeling per vessel, and made the rats so sensitive to capsaicin that a normally tolerable dose of 150 micrograms/kg i.v. caused fatal apnea [16].
  • Attention is called to other drugs that directly or indirectly (by lowering serum cholinesterase) interact with succinylcholine chloride resulting in prolonged apnea [17].
  • Since the level of serum BChE activity and the duration of succinylcholine apnea are inversely correlated, this marked decrease in activity makes individuals with the J-variant more susceptible than usual subjects to prolonged apnea from succinylcholine [18].
  • Individuals who are heterozygous for the fluoride and atypical alleles experience about 30 min of apnea, rather than the usual 3-5 min, after receiving succinyldicholine [19].
  • Subjects were able to maintain a voluntary apnea to a lower oxygen saturation on dopamine than on placebo (P<0.05) [20].

Biological context of Apnea

  • Moreover, resting (early-night placebo heart rate) was positively correlated with proportional reduction of REM apnea index (r = 0.69, p < 0.02) [21].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The changes of mean flow velocity could be interpreted as reactive adaptation processes because of CO2 and blood pressure increases corresponding to apnea [22].
  • There was a significant correlation of the apnea hypopnea index with 9 PM and 6 AM systolic and diastolic blood pressure, with 9 PM platelet activation, and with 6 AM epinephrine levels mainly due to high values in the severe OSAS group [23].
  • In the older group, sleep was more disturbed and respiratory events (hypopneas and apneas) were more frequent both in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and in REM sleep [24].
  • Fourteen preterm infants with apnea (body weight, 1052 +/- 44 g; gestational age, 30.2 +/- 0.5 wks; and postnatal age, 9.9 +/- 1.5 days) were studied in an effort to evaluate the effects of aminophylline on respiratory center output and respiratory reflex activity in the preterm infant with idiopathic apnea [25].

Anatomical context of Apnea


Gene context of Apnea

  • During the treatment of neonatal apnea, formula-fed infants, compared to breastfed infants, show nearly three-fold increase in clearance of caffeine, a substrate of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and in part CYP3A4 [30].
  • The role played by this further increase in TNF-alpha levels after the obstructive apnea in OSAS patients remains to be established in the light of the pathogenic mechanisms of this sleep disorder [31].
  • We observed that nCPAP decreased apnea, desaturation, and the circulating ICAM-1 and IL-8 levels in OSAS patients [32].
  • The newborn (PO) Krox-20-/- mice, in which apneas are ten times longer than in wild-type animals, may be a valuable model for the study of life-threatening apneas during early infancy [33].
  • Choline acetyltransferase mutations cause myasthenic syndrome associated with episodic apnea in humans [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Apnea


  1. Obstructive sleep apnea in hypothyroidism. Rajagopal, K.R., Abbrecht, P.H., Derderian, S.S., Pickett, C., Hofeldt, F., Tellis, C.J., Zwillich, C.W. Ann. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Sleep apnea and hypothyroidism: mechanisms and management. Grunstein, R.R., Sullivan, C.E. Am. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Emergency endotracheal intubation in pediatric trauma. Nakayama, D.K., Gardner, M.J., Rowe, M.I. Ann. Surg. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of cilazapril on hypertension, sleep, and apnea. Peter, J.H., Gassel, W., Mayer, J., Herrer-Mayer, B., Penzel, T., Schneider, H., Weichler, U., Weber, K., von Wichert, P. Am. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Experience with the Nissen fundoplication for correction of gastroesophageal reflux in infants. Randolph, J. Ann. Surg. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Time-course of stepwise CPAP titration. Behavior of respiratory and neurological variables. Montserrat, J.M., Ballester, E., Olivi, H., Reolid, A., Lloberes, P., Morello, A., Rodriguez-Roisin, R. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Rapid eye movement sleep, apnea, and cardiac slowing influenced by phenobarbital administration in the neonate. Gabriel, M., Albani, M. Pediatrics (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Fentanyl-induced rigidity and unconsciousness in human volunteers. Incidence, duration, and plasma concentrations. Streisand, J.B., Bailey, P.L., LeMaire, L., Ashburn, M.A., Tarver, S.D., Varvel, J., Stanley, T.H. Anesthesiology (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of caffeine on peripheral chemoreceptor activity in premature neonates: interaction with sleep stages. Chardon, K., Bach, V., Telliez, F., Cardot, V., Tourneux, P., Leke, A., Libert, J.P. J. Appl. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. A preliminary report comparing nasal CPAP to nasal oxygen in patients with mild OSA. Phillips, B.A., Schmitt, F.A., Berry, D.T., Lamb, D.G., Amin, M., Cook, Y.R. Chest (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A caused by mutation in a microtubule motor KIF1Bbeta. Zhao, C., Takita, J., Tanaka, Y., Setou, M., Nakagawa, T., Takeda, S., Yang, H.W., Terada, S., Nakata, T., Takei, Y., Saito, M., Tsuji, S., Hayashi, Y., Hirokawa, N. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of theophylline on sleep-disordered breathing in heart failure. Javaheri, S., Parker, T.J., Wexler, L., Liming, J.D., Lindower, P., Roselle, G.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Variability in brain death determination practices in children. Mejia, R.E., Pollack, M.M. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Progesterone administration and progressive sleep apneas. Strohl, K.P., Hensley, M.J., Saunders, N.A., Scharf, S.M., Brown, R., Ingram, R.H. JAMA (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Apnea after intravenous diazepam. Dixon, G.D. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Mycoplasma pulmonis infections cause long-lasting potentiation of neurogenic inflammation in the respiratory tract of the rat. McDonald, D.M., Schoeb, T.R., Lindsey, J.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Hazards of succinylcholine administration during electrotherapy. Packman, P.M., Meyer, D.A., Verdun, R.M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. DNA mutations associated with the human butyrylcholinesterase J-variant. Bartels, C.F., James, K., La Du, B.N. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of two different point mutations associated with the fluoride-resistant phenotype for human butyrylcholinesterase. Nogueira, C.P., Bartels, C.F., McGuire, M.C., Adkins, S., Lubrano, T., Rubinstein, H.M., Lightstone, H., Van der Spek, A.F., Lockridge, O., La Du, B.N. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Dopamine depresses minute ventilation in patients with heart failure. van de Borne, P., Oren, R., Somers, V.K. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Reduction of sleep-disordered breathing after physostigmine. Hedner, J., Kraiczi, H., Peker, Y., Murphy, P. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Assessment of intracranial hemodynamics in sleep apnea syndrome. Klingelhöfer, J., Hajak, G., Sander, D., Schulz-Varszegi, M., Rüther, E., Conrad, B. Stroke (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Platelet activation, epinephrine, and blood pressure in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Eisensehr, I., Ehrenberg, B.L., Noachtar, S., Korbett, K., Byrne, A., McAuley, A., Palabrica, T. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Breathing during sleep in normal young and elderly subjects: hypopneas, apneas, and correlated factors. Krieger, J., Turlot, J.C., Mangin, P., Kurtz, D. Sleep. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of aminophylline on respiratory center and reflex activity in premature infants with apnea. Gerhardt, T., McCarthy, J., Bancalari, E. Pediatr. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Pharmacologic effects of theophylline in the newborn. Aranda, J.V., Chemtob, S., Laudignon, N., Sasyniuk, B.I. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Passive smoke effects on cough and airways in young guinea pigs: role of brainstem substance P. Joad, J.P., Munch, P.A., Bric, J.M., Evans, S.J., Pinkerton, K.E., Chen, C.Y., Bonham, A.C. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Respiratory function vs sleep-disordered breathing as predictors of QOL in ALS. Bourke, S.C., Shaw, P.J., Gibson, G.J. Neurology (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Functional role for cannabinoids in respiratory stability during sleep. Carley, D.W., Paviovic, S., Janelidze, M., Radulovacki, M. Sleep. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Induction of cytochrome P450 1A by cow milk-based formula: a comparative study between human milk and formula. Xu, H., Rajesan, R., Harper, P., Kim, R.B., Lonnerdal, B., Yang, M., Uematsu, S., Hutson, J., Watson-MacDonell, J., Ito, S. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Plasma cytokine levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a preliminary study. Alberti, A., Sarchielli, P., Gallinella, E., Floridi, A., Floridi, A., Mazzotta, G., Gallai, V. Journal of sleep research. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Effects of obstructive sleep apnea on circulating ICAM-1, IL-8, and MCP-1. Ohga, E., Tomita, T., Wada, H., Yamamoto, H., Nagase, T., Ouchi, Y. J. Appl. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Reorganization of pontine rhythmogenic neuronal networks in Krox-20 knockout mice. Jacquin, T.D., Borday, V., Schneider-Maunoury, S., Topilko, P., Ghilini, G., Kato, F., Charnay, P., Champagnat, J. Neuron (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Choline acetyltransferase mutations cause myasthenic syndrome associated with episodic apnea in humans. Ohno, K., Tsujino, A., Brengman, J.M., Harper, C.M., Bajzer, Z., Udd, B., Beyring, R., Robb, S., Kirkham, F.J., Engel, A.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Continuous versus bilevel positive airway pressure in a patient with idiopathic central sleep apnea. Hommura, F., Nishimura, M., Oguri, M., Makita, H., Hosokawa, K., Saito, H., Miyamoto, K., Kawakami, Y. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. The determinants of the apnea threshold during NREM sleep in normal subjects. Rowley, J.A., Zhou, X.S., Diamond, M.P., Badr, M.S. Sleep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. Evidence that the adenosine A3 receptor may mediate the protection afforded by preconditioning in the isolated rabbit heart. Liu, G.S., Richards, S.C., Olsson, R.A., Mullane, K., Walsh, R.S., Downey, J.M. Cardiovasc. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. Proteinuria in obstructive sleep apnea. Casserly, L.F., Chow, N., Ali, S., Gottlieb, D.J., Epstein, L.J., Kaufman, J.S. Kidney Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Interaction of fentanyl and nitrous oxide on peripheral and cerebral hemodynamics in newborn lambs. Yaster, M., Koehler, R.C., Traystman, R.J. Anesthesiology (1994) [Pubmed]
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