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Disease relevance of Patella


Psychiatry related information on Patella


High impact information on Patella

  • Here we provide experimental evidence for such homology by showing that an orthologue of hedgehog, an important gene in midline patterning in vertebrates, is expressed along the belly of the larva of the limpet Patella vulgata [7].
  • Mutations in the human TBX4 gene cause small patella syndrome [8].
  • Two of the probands with a multipartite patella had the homozygous DTDST mutation [9].
  • Patella aplasia-hypoplasia (PTLAH) is a rare genetic defect characterized by congenital absence or marked reduction of the patella [10].
  • Expression pattern of Brachyury in the mollusc Patella vulgata suggests a conserved role in the establishment of the AP axis in Bilateria [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Patella


Biological context of Patella


Anatomical context of Patella

  • RESULTS: Triple injections of 20 ng or 200 ng of TGFbeta into normal murine knee joints induced significant osteophyte formation at the lateral and medial sites of the patella and femur on day 7 after the last injection [20].
  • By contrast, there was a significant increase in cellularity in the patella, femoral and tibial cartilages of the steroid-treated animals as compared with that observed in the contralateral control joint [21].
  • Molybdate (15 mmol/kg, po) did not alter total GAG content in patella and articular cartilage of rats assayed 24 hr after administration [22].
  • In vivo studies show that peptide-coated PMMA pellets implanted into the patella groove of rabbits are integrated into the regenerating bone tissue faster and more strongly than uncoated pellets [23].
  • Glutaraldehyde-treated bovine meniscal fibrocartilage has been used as a heterotopic bioprosthesis to repair large osteochondral defects in the canine patella [24].

Associations of Patella with chemical compounds

  • A homozygous R279W mutation was recently found in the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter gene, DTDST, in a patient with MED who had a club foot and double-layered patella [9].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR imaging was performed in eight human cadaveric patella specimens immediately and 4 hours after placement into a vessel filled with gadopentetate dimeglumine solution (2.5 mmol/L) [25].
  • After adjustment for age and creatinine clearance, the positive relation of patella lead to urinary lead was stronger among subjects in the upper two NTx tertiles (beta for patella lead > or =0.015) than in the lowest NTx tertile (beta for patella lead = 0.008; overall p-value for interactions = 0.06) [26].
  • Sagittal images produced similar data to that obtained with transverse (patella) or coronal (tibia) sections, demonstrating that all knee joint cartilages can be accurately quantified from a single sagittal data set [27].
  • Molybdate did not affect GAG chain elongation, as there was no effect of molybdate on [3H]glucosamine uptake into patella cartilage [22].

Gene context of Patella

  • There was evidence that the relation between age and patella lead was modified by both the VDR and eNOS genotypes [28].
  • After the collagenase treatment, the general innervation pattern was comparable to that of the controls, but CGRP and SP innervation was no longer detectable with the antibodies in the plica tissues, and was to a lesser extent detectable in the fat pad of the patella, in the lateral borders of the patella and in the proliferated synovial tissues [29].
  • A rich innervation of thin varicose calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) immunoreactive fibers was found in the joint capsule, in the periosteum of the patella, in the synovial tissues at the lateral border of the patella, in the femoral groove, and in the subchondral bone of the patella and femur [29].
  • Here, we show that, in the gastropod mollusc Patella vulgata, an engrailed ortholog is expressed in the edge of the embryonic shell and in the anlage of the apical sensory organ [30].
  • Ten fresh cadaver knees were prepared by isolating the patella, leaving only the MPFL as its attachment to the medial femoral condyle [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Patella


  1. Recessively inherited multiple epiphyseal dysplasia with normal stature, club foot, and double layered patella caused by a DTDST mutation. Superti-Furga, A., Neumann, L., Riebel, T., Eich, G., Steinmann, B., Spranger, J., Kunze, J. J. Med. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Ultrasonography of entheseal insertions in the lower limb in spondyloarthropathy. Balint, P.V., Kane, D., Wilson, H., McInnes, I.B., Sturrock, R.D. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Human syndromes with congenital patellar anomalies and the underlying gene defects. Bongers, E.M., van Kampen, A., van Bokhoven, H., Knoers, N.V. Clin. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Steroid-related bilateral osteonecrosis of the patella. Mizuta, H., Kubota, K., Shiraishi, M., Kai, K., Nakamura, E., Takagi, K. Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of femoral component design on unresurfaced patellas in knee arthroplasty. Whiteside, L.A., Nakamura, T. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Genitopatellar syndrome: expanding the phenotype. Lifchez, C.A., Rhead, W.J., Leuthner, S.R., Lubinsky, M.S. Am. J. Med. Genet. A (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Evolutionary biology: hedgehog crosses the snail's midline. Nederbragt, A.J., van Loon, A.E., Dictus, W.J. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Mutations in the human TBX4 gene cause small patella syndrome. Bongers, E.M., Duijf, P.H., van Beersum, S.E., Schoots, J., Van Kampen, A., Burckhardt, A., Hamel, B.C., Losan, F., Hoefsloot, L.H., Yntema, H.G., Knoers, N.V., van Bokhoven, H. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. A mutation in COL9A1 causes multiple epiphyseal dysplasia: further evidence for locus heterogeneity. Czarny-Ratajczak, M., Lohiniva, J., Rogala, P., Kozlowski, K., Perälä, M., Carter, L., Spector, T.D., Kolodziej, L., Seppänen, U., Glazar, R., Królewski, J., Latos-Bielenska, A., Ala-Kokko, L. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Localization of a gene for familial patella aplasia-hypoplasia (PTLAH) to chromosome 17q21-22. Mangino, M., Sanchez, O., Torrente, I., De Luca, A., Capon, F., Novelli, G., Dallapiccola, B. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression pattern of Brachyury in the mollusc Patella vulgata suggests a conserved role in the establishment of the AP axis in Bilateria. Lartillot, N., Lespinet, O., Vervoort, M., Adoutte, A. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Steroid induced avascular necrosis of the patella in an ulcerative colitis patient. Elkayam, O., Fishel, B., Zhukovsky, G., Yaron, M. Clinical and experimental rheumatology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of taping the patella on concentric and eccentric torque and EMG of knee extensor and flexor muscles in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Werner, S., Knutsson, E., Eriksson, E. Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Tophaceous gout in the bipartite patella with intra-osseous and intra-articular lesions: a case report. Kobayashi, K., Deie, M., Okuhara, A., Adachi, N., Yasumoto, M., Ochi, M. Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong) (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Transcriptional regulation of tubulin gene expression in differentiating trochoblasts during early development of Patella vulgata. Damen, W.G., van Grunsven, L.A., van Loon, A.E. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Velocity of ultrasound at the patella: influence of age, menopause and estrogen replacement therapy. Lehmann, R., Wapniarz, M., Kvasnicka, H.M., Klein, K., Allolio, B. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. The stringlike genes of the limpet Patella vulgata. van der Kooij, A., Nederbragt, A.J., Goedemans, H.J., van Loon, A.E. Gene (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper in environmentally insulted limpets Patella vulgata. Howard, A.G., Nickless, G. J. Chromatogr. (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. Determination of small quantities of sulfate (0-12 nmol) in serum, urine, and cartilage of the mouse. de Vries, B.J., Vitters, E., van den Berg, W.B., Schram, D., van de Putte, L.B. Anal. Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Crucial role of synovial lining macrophages in the promotion of transforming growth factor beta-mediated osteophyte formation. van Lent, P.L., Blom, A.B., van der Kraan, P., Holthuysen, A.E., Vitters, E., van Rooijen, N., Smeets, R.L., Nabbe, K.C., van den Berg, W.B. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Morphometric quantitation of histopathologic changes in articular cartilage in an immunologically-induced rabbit model of rheumatoid arthritis. Rubin, A.S., Roberts, E.D. Lab. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Molybdate impairs glycosaminoglycan sulfation in rat cartilage. Oguro, T., Madhu, C., Liu, J., Klaassen, C.D. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Surface coating with cyclic RGD peptides stimulates osteoblast adhesion and proliferation as well as bone formation. Kantlehner, M., Schaffner, P., Finsinger, D., Meyer, J., Jonczyk, A., Diefenbach, B., Nies, B., Hölzemann, G., Goodman, S.L., Kessler, H. Chembiochem (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Functional restoration of an articular surface using a heterotopic xenograft: biology of host-implant interactions in the canine patella. Revell, W.J., Heatley, F.W. Biomaterials (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Patellar articular cartilage lesions: in vitro MR imaging evaluation after placement in gadopentetate dimeglumine solution. Woertler, K., Buerger, H., Moeller, J., Rummeny, E.J. Radiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Influence of bone resorption on the mobilization of lead from bone among middle-aged and elderly men: the Normative Aging Study. Tsaih, S.W., Korrick, S., Schwartz, J., Lee, M.L., Amarasiriwardena, C., Aro, A., Sparrow, D., Hu, H. Environ. Health Perspect. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of gradient and section orientation on quantitative analysis of knee joint cartilage. Eckstein, F., Stammberger, T., Priebsch, J., Englmeier, K.H., Reiser, M. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Associations of patella lead with polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase genes. Theppeang, K., Schwartz, B.S., Lee, B.K., Lustberg, M.E., Silbergeld, E.K., Kelsey, K.T., Parsons, P.J., Todd, A.C. J. Occup. Environ. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Innervation of the patella. An immunohistochemical study in mice. Buma, P. Acta orthopaedica Scandinavica. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Expression of Patella vulgata orthologs of engrailed and dpp-BMP2/4 in adjacent domains during molluscan shell development suggests a conserved compartment boundary mechanism. Nederbragt, A.J., van Loon, A.E., Dictus, W.J. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Tensile strength of the medial patellofemoral ligament before and after repair or reconstruction. Mountney, J., Senavongse, W., Amis, A.A., Thomas, N.P. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Comparison of the results of bilateral total knee arthroplasty with and without patellar replacement for rheumatoid arthritis. A follow-up note. Kajino, A., Yoshino, S., Kameyama, S., Kohda, M., Nagashima, S. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Site-specific cartilage changes in murine degenerative knee joint disease induced by iodoacetate and collagenase. van Osch, G.J., van der Kraan, P.M., van den Berg, W.B. J. Orthop. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Total knee arthroplasty in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Sarokhan, A.J., Scott, R.D., Thomas, W.H., Sledge, C.B., Ewald, F.C., Cloos, D.W. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (1983) [Pubmed]
  35. Ultrasonography as a tool for diagnosis, guidance of local steroid injection and, together with pressure algometry, monitoring of the treatment of athletes with chronic jumper's knee and Achilles tendinitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Fredberg, U., Bolvig, L., Pfeiffer-Jensen, M., Clemmensen, D., Jakobsen, B.W., Stengaard-Pedersen, K. Scand. J. Rheumatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Three cases of patella fracture in 1,320 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions with bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. Viola, R., Vianello, R. Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. (1999) [Pubmed]
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